WASP-South transiting exoplanets

WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b & WASP-142b

Abstract

We describe seven exoplanets transiting stars of brightness = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a “warm Jupiter” having an orbital period of 11.6 d around a metal-rich G6 star. Its mass and radius (1.23 0.04 M; 0.89 0.03 R) support the trend that warm Jupiters have smaller radii than hot Jupiters. WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 M; 1.22 R). Its large scale height and bright ( = 10.1) host star make it a good target for atmospheric characterisation. WASP-132b (0.41 M; 0.87 R) is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, having a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. WASP-139b is a “super-Neptune” akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b, being the lowest-mass planet yet found by WASP (0.12 M; 0.80 R). The metal-rich K0 host star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-M planet in an eccentric () 2.2-d orbit. The planet’s radius is large (1.4 R), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit ( = 0.93). The 10.4-day rotation period of the K0 host star suggests a young age, and the timescale for tidal circularisation is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. WASP-141b (2.7 M, 1.2 R, = 3.3 d) and WASP-142b (0.84 M, 1.53 R, = 2.1 d) are typical hot Jupiters orbiting metal-rich F stars. We show that the period distribution within the hot-Jupiter bulge does not depend on the metallicity of the host star.

keywords:
planetary systems – stars: individual (WASP-130, WASP-131, WASP-132, WASP-139, WASP-140, WASP-141, WASP-142)
1

1 Introduction

The WASP survey continues to be a productive means of finding giant planets transiting relatively bright stars. WASP discoveries are often prime targets for further study. For example 2016Natur.529...59S devoted 125 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope time to exoplanet atmospheres, of which 6 out of 8 targets were WASP planets. Similarly, 2016PASP..128i4401S propose 12 planets as “community targets” for atmospheric characterisation in Cycle 1 of the James Webb Space Telescope, of which 7 are WASP planets. Ongoing discoveries also increase the census of closely orbiting giant planets, and continue to find planets with novel characteristics.

Here we report seven new transiting giant planets discovered by the WASP-South survey instrument in conjunction with the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph and the robotic TRAPPIST photometer. With 200-mm lenses the eight WASP-South cameras can cover up to half the available sky per year (south of declination +08 and avoiding the crowded galactic plane). This means that the data that led to the current discoveries, accumulated from 2006 May to 2012 Jun, typically includes three seasons of coverage, or more where pointings overlap. Combining multiple years of observation gives sensitivity to longer orbital periods, and this batch of planets includes the longest-period WASP discovery yet, a “warm Jupiter” at 11.6 days.

Facility Date Notes
WASP-130:
WASP-South 2006 May–2012 Jun 28 400 points
CORALIE 2014 Feb–2016 Mar 27 RVs
EulerCAM 2014 May 04 Gunn filter
EulerCAM 2014 May 27 Gunn filter
TRAPPIST 2014 May 27 band
TRAPPIST 2015 Feb 05 band
TRAPPIST 2015 Apr 27 band
EulerCAM 2015 Apr 27 Gunn filter
WASP-131:
WASP-South 2006 May–2012 Jun 23 300 points
CORALIE 2014 Feb–2016 Mar 23 RVs
TRAPPIST 2014 Apr 22 band
EulerCAM 2014 Apr 22 Gunn filter
EulerCAM 2015 Mar 02 filter
EulerCAM 2015 Apr 03 filter
TRAPPIST 2015 Apr 19 band
TRAPPIST 2015 Jun 06 band
WASP-132:
WASP-South 2006 May–2012 Jun 23 300 points
CORALIE 2014 Mar–2016 Mar 36 RVs
TRAPPIST 2014 May 05 band
WASP-139:
WASP-South 2006 May–2012 Jun 21 000 points
CORALIE 2008 Oct–2015 Dec 24 RVs
HARPS 2014 Sep–2015 Jan 27 RVs
TRAPPIST 2014 Aug 06 band
TRAPPIST 2015 Sep 07 band
EulerCAM 2015 Sep 07 NGTS filter
WASP-140:
WASP-South 2006 Aug–2012 Jan 31 300 points
CORALIE 2014 Sep–2015 Dec 23 RVs
TRAPPIST 2014 Oct 12 band
TRAPPIST 2014 Nov 28 band
TRAPPIST 2014 Dec 07 band
EulerCAM 2015 Sep 01 filter
WASP-141:
WASP-South 2006 Sep–2012 Feb 21 400 points
CORALIE 2014 Oct–2015 Dec 18 RVs
EulerCAM 2014 Dec 17 NGTS filter
TRAPPIST 2015 Jan 19 band
TRAPPIST 2015 Dec 26 band
WASP-142:
WASP-South 2006 May–2012 May 47 300 points
CORALIE 2014 Oct–2016 Feb 16 RVs
TRAPPIST 2014 May 26 Blue-block
EulerCAM 2014 Dec 13 filter
EulerCAM 2015 Mar 01 filter
TRAPPIST 2015 Apr 03 Blue-block
Table 1: Observations

2 Observations

Since the processes and techniques used here are a continuation of those from other recent WASP-South discovery papers (e.g. 2014MNRAS.445.1114A; 2014MNRAS.440.1982H; 2016A&A...591A..55M) we describe them briefly. The WASP camera arrays (2006PASP..118.1407P) tile fields of with a typical cadence of 10 mins, using 200mm f/1.8 lenses backed by 2k2k Peltier-cooled CCDs. Using transit-search algorithms (2007MNRAS.380.1230C) we trawl the accumulated multi-year lightcurves for planet candidates, which are then passed to the 1.2-m Euler/CORALIE spectrograph (e.g. 2013A&A...551A..80T), for radial-velocity observations, and to the robotic 0.6-m TRAPPIST photometer, which resolves candidates which are blended in WASP’s large, 14, pixels. TRAPPIST (e.g. 2013A&A...552A..82G) and EulerCAM (e.g. 2012A&A...544A..72L) then obtain higher-quality photometry of newly confirmed planets. For one system reported here, WASP-139, we have also obtained radial velocities using the HARPS spectrometer on the ESO 3.6-m (2003Msngr.114...20M). A list of our observations is given in Table 1 while the radial velocities are listed in Table A1.

3 The host stars

We used the CORALIE spectra to estimate spectral parameters of the host stars using the methods described in 2013MNRAS.428.3164D. We used the H line to estimate the effective temperature (), and the Na i D and Mg i b lines as diagnostics of the surface gravity (). The Iron abundances were determined from equivalent-width measurements of several clean and unblended Fe i lines and are given relative to the Solar value presented in 2009ARA&A..47..481A. The quoted abundance errors include that given by the uncertainties in and , as well as the scatter due to measurement and atomic data uncertainties. The projected rotation velocities () were determined by fitting the profiles of the Fe i lines after convolving with the CORALIE instrumental resolution ( = 55 000) and a macroturbulent velocity adopted from the calibration of 2014MNRAS.444.3592D.

The parameters obtained from the analysis are given in Tables 2 to 8. Gyrochronological age estimates are given for three stars, derived from the measured  and compared to values in 2007ApJ...669.1167B; for the other stars no sensible constraint is obtained. Lithium age estimates come from values in 2005A&A...442..615S. We also list proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue (2013AJ....145...44Z).

We searched the WASP photometry of each star for rotational modulations by using a sine-wave fitting algorithm as described by 2011PASP..123..547M. We estimated the significance of periodicities by subtracting the fitted transit lightcurve and then repeatedly and randomly permuting the nights of observation. We found a significant modulation in WASP-140 (see Section 10) and a possible modulation in WASP-132 (Section 8) and report upper limits for the other stars.

4 System parameters

The CORALIE radial-velocity measurements (and the HARPS data for WASP-139) were combined with the WASP, EulerCAM and TRAPPIST photometry in a simultaneous Markov-chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) analysis to find the system parameters. CORALIE was upgraded in 2014 November, and so we treat the RV data before and after that time as independent datasets, allowing a zero-point offset between them (the division is indicated by a short horizontal line in Table A1). For more details of our methods see 2007MNRAS.375..951C. The limb-darkening parameters are noted in each Table, and are taken from the 4-parameter non-linear law of 2000A&A...363.1081C.

For WASP-140b the orbital eccentricity is significant and was fitted as a free parameter. For the others we imposed a circular orbit since hot Jupiters are expected to circularise on a timescale less than their age, and so adopting a circular orbit gives the most likely parameters (see, e.g., 2012MNRAS.422.1988A).

The fitted parameters were , , , , , , where is the epoch of mid-transit, is the orbital period, is the fractional flux-deficit that would be observed during transit in the absence of limb-darkening, is the total transit duration (from first to fourth contact), is the impact parameter of the planet’s path across the stellar disc, and is the stellar reflex velocity semi-amplitude.

The transit lightcurves lead directly to stellar density but one additional constraint is required to obtain stellar masses and radii, and hence full parametrisation of the system. As with other recent WASP discovery papers, we compare the derived stellar density and the spectroscopic effective temperature and metallicity to a grid of stellar models, as described in 2015A&A...575A..36M. We use an MCMC method to calculate the posterior distribution for the mass and age estimates of the star. The stellar models were calculated using the garstec stellar evolution code (2008Ap&SS.316...99W) and the methods used to calculate the stellar model grid are described in 2013MNRAS.429.3645S.


Figure 1: WASP-130b discovery photometry: (Top) The WASP data folded on the transit period. (Second panel) The binned WASP data with (offset) the follow-up transit lightcurves (ordered from the top as in Table 1) together with the fitted MCMC model. Red dashed lines indicate times when the TRAPPIST photometer was flipped across the meridian. The second EulerCAM lightcurve had poor observing conditions and shows excess red noise, which was accounted for by inflating the errors in the MCMC process.

Figure 2: WASP-130b radial velocities and fitted model (top) along with (bottom) the bisector spans; the absence of any correlation with radial velocity is a check against transit mimics.

For each system we list the resulting parameters in Tables 2 to 8 and show the data and models in Figures 1 to 14. We generally report 1- error bars on all quantities. For the possible effects of red noise in transit lightcurves and their affect on system parameters see the extensive analysis by 2012AJ....143...81S. We report the comparison to stellar models in Table 9, where we give the likeliest age and the 95% confidence interval, and display the comparison in Fig. 15.

1SWASP J133225.42–422831.0
2MASS 13322543–4228309
RA = 133225.43, Dec = –422830.9 (J2000)
mag = 11.1
Rotational modulation    1 mmag (95%)
pm (RA) 7.0  2.5 (Dec) –0.7  1.3 mas/yr
Stellar parameters from spectroscopic analysis.
Spectral type G6
(K) 5600 100
4.4 0.1
(km s) 0.5 0.5
[Fe/H] +0.26 0.10
log A(Li) 0.4
Age (Lithium) [Gy] 2
Distance [pc] 180 30
Parameters from MCMC analysis.
(d) 11.55098 0.00001
(HJD) (UTC) 245 6921.14307 0.00025
(d) 0.155 0.001
(d) 0.018 0.001
/R 0.00916 0.00014
0.53 0.03
() 88.66 0.12
(km s) 0.108 0.002
(km s) 1.462 0.002
0 (adopted) ( 0.04 at 2)
(M) 1.04 0.04
(R) 0.96 0.03
(cgs) 4.49 0.02
() 1.18 0.09
(K) 5625 90
(M) 1.23 0.04
(R) 0.89 0.03
(cgs) 3.55 0.03
() 1.76 0.18
(AU) 0.1012 0.0014
(K) 833 18
band: a1 = 0.657 , a2 = –0.454 , a3 = 0.834, a4 = –0.407
band: a1 = 0.669, a2 = –0.400, a3 = 0.976, a4 = –0.481
Errors are 1; Limb-darkening coefficients were:
Table 2: System parameters for WASP-130.

5 Wasp-130

WASP-130 is a = 11.1, G6 star with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.26 0.10. The transit of 4.49 0.02 is consistent with the spectroscopic of 4.4 0.1. The evolutionary comparison (Fig. 15) suggests an age of 0.2–7.9 Gyr (consistent with the lithium age estimate of 2 Gyr).

The radial velocities show excess scatter with could be due to magnetic activity, though in this system there is no detection of a rotational modulation in the WASP data. Scatter when folded on the orbital period can also be caused by a longer-term trend, but that is not the case here.

The planet, WASP-130b, has an orbital period of 11.6 days, the longest yet found by WASP-South, and is thus a “warm jupiter”. For comparison, the HATNet and HATSouth projects have cameras at more than one longitude and so are more sensitive to longer periods; their longest-period system is currently HATS-17b at 16.3 d (2016AJ....151...89B).

The mass of WASP-130b is 1.23 0.04 M. In keeping with other longer-period systems (e.g. 2011ApJS..197...12D), but in contrast to many hotter Jupiters, the radius is not bloated (0.89 0.03 R). WASP-130b is thus similar to HATS-17b (1.34 M; 0.78 R; 2016AJ....151...89B), though not quite as compact. Brahm et al. suggest that HATS-17b has a massive metallic core, which they link to the raised metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.3, which is again similar to that of WASP-130 ([Fe/H] = +0.25).


Figure 3: WASP-131b discovery photometry, as for Fig. 1.

Figure 4: WASP-131b radial velocities and bisector spans, as for Fig. 2.
1SWASP J140046.44–303500.8
2MASS 14004645–3035008
RA = 140046.45, Dec = –303500.8 (J2000)
mag = 10.1
Rotational modulation    0.5 mmag (95%)
pm (RA) 11.4  1.9 (Dec) –6.5  1.0 mas/yr
Stellar parameters from spectroscopic analysis.
Spectral type G0
(K) 5950 100
3.9 0.1
(km s) 3.0 0.9
[Fe/H] –0.18 0.08
log A(Li) 2.60 0.08
Age (Lithium) [Gy] 1 8
Distance [pc] 250 50
Parameters from MCMC analysis.
(d) 5.322023 0.000005
(HJD) (UTC) 2456919.8236 0.0004
(d) 0.1596 0.0014
(d) 0.0243 0.0016
/R 0.00665 0.00012
0.73 0.02
() 85.0 0.3
(km s) 0.0305 0.0017
(km s) –19.6636 0.0015
0 (adopted) ( 0.10 at 2)
(M) 1.06 0.06
(R) 1.53 0.05
(cgs) 4.089 0.026
() 0.292 0.026
(K) 6030 90
(M) 0.27 0.02
(R) 1.22 0.05
(cgs) 2.62 0.04
() 0.15 0.02
(AU) 0.0607 0.0009
(K) 1460 30
band: a1 = 0.573 , a2 = –0.142 , a3 = 0.410, a4 = –0.241
band: a1 = 0.676, a2 = –0.353, a3 = 0.685, a4 = –0.347
band: a1 = 0.601, a2 = –0.085, a3 = 0.517, a4 = –0.300
Errors are 1; Limb-darkening coefficients were:
Table 3: System parameters for WASP-131.

6 Wasp-131

WASP-131 is a = 10.1, G0 star with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = –0.18 0.08. The transit of 4.09 0.03 is consistent with the spectroscopic of 3.9 0.1. The radius is inflated (1.53 R for 1.06 M) and the evolutionary comparison (Fig. 15) suggests an age of 4.5–10 Gyr (consistent with the poorly constrained lithium estimate of between 1 and 8 Gyr).

The planet, WASP-131b, has an orbital period of 5.3 days. It is a Saturn-mass but bloated planet (0.27 M; 1.22 R). The low density of the planet (0.15  0.02 ) and the consequent large scale-height of the atmosphere, coupled with the host-star magnitude of = 10.1, should make WASP-131b a good candidate for atmospheric characterisation.

Low-density, Saturn-mass planets akin to WASP-131b have been seen before. The most similar include WASP-21b (0.28 M; 1.2 R; = 4.3 d; 2010A&A...519A..98B), WASP-39b (0.28 M; 1.3 R; = 4.1 d; 2011A&A...531A..40F), Kepler-427b (0.29 M; 1.2 R; = 10.3 d; 2014A&A...572A..93H) and HAT-P-51b (0.30 M; 1.3 R; = 4.2 d; 2015AJ....150..168H).


Figure 5: WASP-132b discovery data, as for Figs. 1 & 2.

Figure 6: Possible rotational modulation in the WASP data for WASP-132. The left-hand panels show peridograms for each season of data (2006, 2007, 2008, 2011 & 2012 from the top down). The 33-d period is marked in green, as is half this period in the uppermost panel. The blue dotted line is a false-alarm probability of 0.001. The right-hand panels show the data for each season folded on the 33.4-d period; the green line is a harmonic-series fit to the data
1SWASP J143026.22–460933.0
2MASS 14302619–4609330
RA = 143026.19, Dec = –460933.0 (J2000)
mag = 12.4
Rotational modulation: possible 0.4-mmag at 33-d.
pm (RA) 14.2  1.3 (Dec) –73.8  1.3 mas/yr
Stellar parameters from spectroscopic analysis.
Spectral type K4
(K) 4750 100
4.6 0.1
(km s) 0.9 0.8
[Fe/H] +0.22 0.13
log A(Li) –0.3
Age (Lithium) [Gy] 0.5
Distance [pc] 120 20
Parameters from MCMC analysis.
(d) 7.133521 0.000009
(HJD) (UTC) 2456698.2076 0.0004
(d) 0.1284 0.0009
(d) 0.0141 0.0008
/R 0.0146 0.0003
0.14 0.12
() 89.6 0.3
(km s) 0.051 0.003
(km s) 31.067 0.003
0 (adopted) ( 0.10 at 2)
(M) 0.80 0.04
(R) 0.74 0.02
(cgs) 4.61 0.02
() 2.00
(K) 4775 100
(M) 0.41 0.03
(R) 0.87 0.03
(cgs) 3.10 0.04
() 0.63 0.06
(AU) 0.067 0.001
(K) 763 16
band: a1 = 0.742 , a2 = –0.751 , a3 = 1.200, a4 = –0.498
Errors are 1; Limb-darkening coefficients were:
Table 4: System parameters for WASP-132.

7 Wasp-132

WASP-132 is a = 12.4, K4 star with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.22 0.13. The transit of 4.61 0.02 is consistent with the spectroscopic of 4.6 0.1. The evolutionary comparison (Fig. 15) gives an age of  0.9 Gyr.

The radial-velocities show excess scatter, which may be due to magnetic activity. There is also a suggestion in Fig. 5 of a possible correlation of the bisector with orbital phase. This is partly due to a possible longer-term trend to both lower radial velocities and bisectors over the span of the observations. The radial velocities decrease by 60 m s over time, though this is unreliable owing to the CORALIE upgrade midway through the dataset. If we analyse the data before and after the upgrade separately we find no significant correlation between the bisector and the radial-velocity value.

A possible rotational modulation with a period of 33 3 d, and an amplitude of 0.4-mmag, is seen in 3 out of 5 seasons of WASP data (Fig. 6), while a possible modulation at half this period is seen in a 4th dataset. This is close to the limit detectable with WASP data (for the other stars we’re quoting upper limits in the range 0.5–1.5 mmag), and so is not fully reliable.

A rotational period of 33 3 d would indicate a gyrochronological age of 2.2 0.3 Gyr (2007ApJ...669.1167B), which is consistent with the above evolutionary estimate. The period would also imply an equatorial velocity of 1.1 0.2 km s, which is consistent with the observed (but poorly constrained)  value of 0.9 0.8 km s.

The planet, WASP-132b, has a low-mass and a modest radius compared to many hot Jupiters (0.41 M; 0.87 R). With an orbital period of 7.1 d around a K4 star it is among the least irradiated of the WASP planets. The equilibrium temperature is estimated at only 763 16 K. Of WASP systems, only WASP-59b (2013A&A...549A.134H), in a 7.9-d orbit around a K5V, has a lower temperature of 670 35 K. HATS-6b (2015AJ....149..166H), in a 3.3-d orbit around an M1V star, is also cooler (713 5 K), but all other cooler gas giants have orbital periods of greater than 10 d.


Figure 7: WASP-139b discovery photometry, as for Fig. 1.

Figure 8: WASP-139b radial velocities and bisector spans, as for Fig. 2. We have not plotted 3 RV points with very large errors. We also show only the HARPS bisectors, which have smaller errors. The lowest panel is a larger-scale view of the transit and the R–M effect.
1SWASP J031814.91–411807.4
2MASS 03181493–4118077
RA = 031814.93, Dec = –411807.7 (J2000)
mag = 12.4
Rotational modulation    1 mmag (95%)
pm (RA) –16.7  1.3 (Dec) 23.6  3.3 mas/yr
Stellar parameters from spectroscopic analysis.
Spectral type K0
(K) 5300 100
4.5 0.1
(km s) 4.2 1.1
[Fe/H] +0.20 0.09
log A(Li) 0.5
Age (Lithium) [Gy] 0.5
Age (Gyro) [Gy]
Distance [pc] 230 40
Parameters from MCMC analysis.
(d) 5.924262 0.000004
(HJD) (UTC) 2457196.7933 0.0003
(d) 0.118 0.001
(d) 0.012 0.002
/R 0.0107 0.0003
0.33 0.14
() 88.9 0.5
(km s) 0.0140 0.0014
(km s) –12.996 0.001
0 (adopted) ( 0.28 at 2)
(M) 0.92 0.10
(R) 0.80 0.04
(cgs) 4.59 0.06
() 1.8 0.2
(K) 5310 90
(M) 0.117 0.017
(R) 0.80 0.05
(cgs) 2.62 0.06
() 0.23 0.04
(AU) 0.062 0.002
(K) 910 30
band: a1 = 0.721 , a2 = –0.671 , a3 = 1.104, a4 = –0.494
band: a1 = 0.712, a2 = –0.642, a3 = 1.321, a4 = –0.598
Errors are 1; Limb-darkening coefficients were:
Table 5: System parameters for WASP-139.

8 Wasp-139

WASP-139 is a = 12.4, K0 star with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 0.09. The transit of 4.59 0.06 is consistent with the spectroscopic of 4.5 0.1. The gyrochonological age constraint and the lack of lithium imply a relatively young star of  0.5 Gyr.

The stellar density resulting from the transit analysis (1.8 0.2 ; 0.92 M, 0.80 R) puts the star below the main sequence and is only marginally consistent with the evolutionary models of 2015A&A...575A..36M. The same has been found for HAT-P-11 (2010ApJ...710.1724B) and possibly also for WASP-89 (2015AJ....150...18H). For a discussion of this see 2015A&A...577A..90M, who suggested that such stars might be helium-rich.

The planet, WASP-139b, has a mass of only 0.12 0.02 M, making it the lowest-mass WASP discovery yet. With a radius of 0.80 R, and thus a low density of 0.23 0.04 , the large scale height makes WASP-139b a good target for atmospheric characterisation.

Owing to the small planet mass, and thus the low reflex velocity, we obtained HARPS data in order to better parametrise the system. This included observations of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect through transit (Fig. 8). If the orbit were aligned, and taking values for the  and impact parameter from Table 5, we’d expect an R–M effect of order 30 m s (e.g. 2007ApJ...655..550G). The HARPS data indicate a much lower value, though owing to the relatively large errors the fit is effectively unconstrained and thus we do not report parameters such as the alignment angle.

WASP-139b is most similar to two recent discoveries by the HATSouth project, HATS-7b (2015ApJ...813..111B) and HATS-8b (2015AJ....150...49B). HATS-7b is a 0.12 M planet with a radius of 0.56 R in a 3.2-d orbit. The host stars are also similar (HATS-7 is a V = 13.3, K dwarf, T = 4985, [Fe/H] = +0.25; HATS-8 is a V = 14.0 G dwarf, T = 5680, [Fe/H] = +0.21; whereas WASP-139 is a V = 12.4 K0 dwarf, T = 5300, [Fe/H] = +0.20). The HATS project have called such systems “super-Neptunes”, and, as now the brightest example, the WASP-139 system will be important for studying such objects.


Figure 9: WASP-140b photometry, as for Fig. 1.

Figure 10: WASP-140b radial velocities, as for Figs. 2. (Top) The dark-orange radial velocity curve is the best-fitting eccentric orbit; the grey line is the best circular orbit for comparison. (Middle) The RVs after subtracting the circular orbit. (Lowest) The bisector spans.

Figure 11: Rotational modulation in the WASP data for WASP-140. The left-hand panels show peridograms for independent data sets (a season of data in a given camera over 2006 to 2011). The blue dotted line is a false-alarm probability of 0.001. The right-hand panels show the data for each season folded on the 10.4-d period; the green line is a harmonic-series fit to the data
1SWASP J040132.53–202703.9
2MASS 04013254–2027039
RA = 040132.54, Dec = –202703.9 (J2000)
mag = 11.1
Rotational modulation: 5–9 mmag at 10.4  0.1 d
pm (RA) –23.2  1.7 (Dec) 17.8  1.1 mas/yr
Stellar parameters from spectroscopic analysis.
Spectral type K0
(K) 5300 100
4.2 0.1
(km s) 3.1 0.8
[Fe/H] +0.12 0.10
log A(Li) 0.4
Age (Lithium) [Gy] 0.5
Age (Gyro) [Gy]
Distance [pc] 180 30
Parameters from MCMC analysis.
(d) 2.2359835 0.0000008
(HJD) 2456912.35105 0.00015
(d) 0.0631 0.0009
(d) (undefined)
/R 0.0205
0.93
() 83.3
(km s) 0.403 0.003
(km s) 2.125 0.003
0.0468 0.0035
–0.003 0.006
0.0470 0.0035
() –4 8
0.530 0.002
(M) 0.90 0.04
(R) 0.87 0.04
(cgs) 4.51 0.04
() 1.38 0.18
(K) 5260 100
(M) 2.44 0.07
(R) 1.44
(cgs) 3.4 0.2
() 0.8 0.4
(AU) 0.0323 0.0005
(K) 1320 40
band: a1 = 0.786, a2 = –0.811 , a3 = 1.320, a4 = –0.573
band: a1 = 0.725, a2 = –0.684, a3 = 1.121, a4 = –0.496
Errors are 1; Limb-darkening coefficients were:
Table 6: System parameters for WASP-140.

9 Wasp-140

WASP-140A is a = 11.1, K0 star with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.12 0.10. The transit of 4.51 0.04 is higher than the spectroscopic of 4.2 0.1. In such cases we regard the transit value as the more reliable, given the systematic uncertainties in estimates in such spectra (e.g. 2015ApJ...805..126B report discrepancies as big as 0.3 dex).

A second star, WASP-140B, is fainter by 2.01 0.02 magnitudes and is 7.24 0.01 arcsecs from WASP-140 at a position angle of 77.4 0.1 degrees (values from the EulerCAM observation on 2015-09-01 with a filter). The TRAPPIST and EulerCAM transit photometry used a small aperture that excluded this star. The 2MASS colours of WASP-140B ( = 11.09 0.03; = 10.46 0.02; = 10.27 0.03) are consistent with it being physically associated with WASP-140A ( = 9.61 0.03; = 9.24 0.02; = 9.17 0.03), and so it is possible that the two stars form a binary. There are no proper motion values listed for WASP-140B in UCAC4.

The WASP data on WASP-140 show a clear rotational modulation with a period of 10.4 0.1 days and an amplitude varying between 5 and 9 mmag (Fig. 11), implying that it is magnetically active. The WASP aperture includes both stars, so it is not certain which star is the variable, though if it were WASP-140B then the amplitude would have to be 6 times higher, which is less likely. There is also evidence of a star spot in each of the two lowest transit lightcurves in Fig. 9, which would imply that WASP-140A is magentically active.

The 10.4-d rotational period would imply a young gyrochronological age for WASP-140A of 0.42 0.06 Gyr (2007ApJ...669.1167B). This is inconsistent with the evolutionary comparison (Fig. 15), which suggests a likeliest age of 8 Gyr with a lower bound of 1.7 Gyr. This inconsistency suggests that WASP-140A has been spun up by the presence of the massive, closely orbiting planet (see the discussion in 2014MNRAS.442.1844B).

The rotational period equates to an equatorial velocity of 6.3 0.9 km s. Comparing this to the observed  value of 3.1 0.8 km s suggests a misaligned system, with the star’s spin axis at an inclination of 30 15.

The planet WASP-140Ab has a mass of 2.4 M and is in a 2.2-day orbit. The transit is grazing, with an impact parameter of 0.93 . Other WASP planets that are grazing are WASP-67b (2012MNRAS.426..739H; 2014A&A...568A.127M) and WASP-34b (2011A&A...526A.130S). Since it is possible that not all of the planet is transiting the star its radius is ill-constrained at 1.44 R.

9.1 WASP-140Ab’s eccentric orbit

The orbit of WASP-140Ab is eccentric with . A Lucy–Sweeney test shows this to be significantly non-zero with % confidence. Being significantly eccentric at an orbital period as short as 2.2 days is unusual in a hot Jupiter. For comparison, WASP-14b (2009MNRAS.392.1532J) also has an eccentric 2.2-day orbital period, but is a much more massive planet at 7.7 M. WASP-89b (2015AJ....150...18H) has an eccentric 3.4-d orbit and is also more massive at 5.9 M.

The circularisation timescale for a hot Jupiter can be estimated from (2006ApJ...649.1004A, eqn 3):

Using a value of the quality factor, , of 10 (e.g. 2012arXiv1209.5724S), and the parameters of Table 6, gives a circularisation timescale of 5 Myr. Note, however, the strong dependence on , which is poorly contrained in WASP-140Ab owing to the grazing transit. Pushing up to 10, and taking the parameters at their 1-sigma boundaries to lengthen the timescale allows values of 100 Myr. This is still short compared to the likely age of the host star, and suggests that WASP-140b has only relatively recently arrived in its current orbit.

Comparing to other hot-Jupiters, using the above equation and parameters tabulated in TEPCat (2011MNRAS.417.2166S), we find that WASP-140Ab has the shortest circularisation timescale of all hot Jupiters that are in clearly eccentric orbits (where we adopt a 3 threshold). Using the best-fit parameters of Table 6 for WASP-140Ab, and adopting = 10, gives = 6.6.

A timescale of = 6.1 is obtained for WASP-18b (2009Natur.460.1098H), which has been reported as having a small but significant eccentricity of = 0.008 0.001 (2010A&A...524A..25T). However, this apparent eccentricity might instead be an effect of the tidal bulge on WASP-18, which is the biggest of any known hot-Jupiter system (see 2012MNRAS.422.1761A).

The next shortest timescale is = 6.8 for HAT-P-13b (2009ApJ...707..446B). From Spitzer observations of the planetary occulation, 2016ApJ...821...26B report a significant eccentricity of . In this system, however, the eccentricity of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-13b is likely being maintained by the perturbative effect of HAT-P-13c, a 14 M outer planet in a highly eccentric () 446-day orbit (2010ApJ...718..575W).

The smallest timescale for any other hot Jupiter that is indisputably eccentric is likely that for WASP-14b at = 7.6. This is an order of magnitude longer than that for WASP-140Ab, which implies that WASP-140Ab is unusual. Tidal heating has long been proposed as a possible cause of the inflated radii of many hot Jupiters (e.g. 2013arXiv1304.4121S and references therein), and may help to explain the fact that WASP-140Ab has a bloated radius despite being relatively massive. It will be worth obtaining better transit photometry of WASP-140, in order to better constrain the parameters, and also worth looking for an outer planet that might be maintaining the eccentricity.

It’s also worth noting that short-period, massive and eccentric planets are rare around K stars. WASP-89b is the previously known example, a 6 M planet in a 3.36-d orbit with an eccentricity of 0.192 0.009 around a K3 star (2015AJ....150...18H). The magnetic activity of both stars, WASP-89 and WASP-140A, might be related to the presence of the eccentric, short-period planet (e.g. 2014A&A...565L...1P).


Figure 12: WASP-141b discovery data, as for Figs. 1 & 2.
1SWASP J044717.84–170654.6
2MASS 04471785–1706545
RA = 044717.85, Dec = –170654.5 (J2000)
mag = 12.4
Rotational modulation    1.5 mmag (95%)
pm (RA) 4.2  0.9 (Dec) –3.1  2.6 mas/yr
Stellar parameters from spectroscopic analysis.
Spectral type F9
(K) 6050 120
4.20 0.15
(km s) 3.9 0.8
[Fe/H] +0.29 0.09
log A(Li) 1.75 0.12
Age (Lithium) [Gy] 5
Age (Gyro) [Gy]
Distance [pc] 570 150
Parameters from MCMC analysis.
(d) 3.310651 0.000005
(HJD) (UTC) 2457019.5953 0.0003
(d) 0.150 0.001
(d) 0.014 0.001
/R 0.0083 0.0002
0.31 0.12
() 87.6 1.3
(km s) 0.315 0.015
(km s) 33.828 0.009
0 (adopted) ( 0.06 at 2)
(M) 1.25 0.06
(R) 1.37 0.07
(cgs) 4.26 0.04
() 0.49 0.07
(K) 5900 120
(M) 2.69 0.15
(R) 1.21 0.08
(cgs) 3.62 0.05
() 1.49 0.25
(AU) 0.0469 0.0007
(K) 1540 50
band: a1 = 0.616, a2 = –0.305, a3 = 0.635, a4 = –0.331
Errors are 1; Limb-darkening coefficients were:
Table 7: System parameters for WASP-141.

Figure 13: WASP-142b discovery photometry, as for Fig. 1.

10 Wasp-141

WASP-141 is a = 12.4, F9 star with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.29 0.09. The transit of 4.26 0.06 is consistent with the spectroscopic value of 4.20 0.15. The evolutionary comparison (Fig. 15) gives an age estimate of 1.5–5.6 Gyr. This is compatible with the gyrochronological estimate of Gyr and marginally consistent with the lithium age of 5 Gyr.

The planet, WASP-141b is a 2.7 M, 1.2 R planet in a 3.3-d orbit. WASP-141 appears to be a typical hot-Jupiter system.

1SWASP J092201.43–235645.8
2MASS 09220153–2356462
RA = 092201.53, Dec = –235646.2 (J2000)
mag = 12.3
Rotational modulation    1.5 mmag (95%)
pm (RA) –3.1  3.5 (Dec) 3.7  3.1 mas/yr
Stellar parameters from spectroscopic analysis.
Spectral type F8
(K) 6060 150
4.0 0.2
(km s) 3.1 1.4
[Fe/H] +0.26 0.12
log A(Li) 3.10 0.09
Age (Lithium) [Gy] 2
Distance [pc] 840 310
Parameters from MCMC analysis.
(d) 2.052868 0.000002
(HJD) 2457007.7779 0.0004
(d) 0.1117 0.0016
(d) 0.022 0.002
/R 0.00916 0.00026
0.77 0.02
() 80.2 0.6
(km s) 0.109 0.010
(km s) 47.126 0.010
0 (adopted) ( 0.27 at 2)
(M) 1.33 0.08
(R) 1.64 0.08
(cgs) 4.13 0.04
() 0.30 0.04
(K) 6010 140
(M) 0.84 0.09
(R) 1.53 0.08
(cgs) 2.91 0.06
() 0.23 0.05
(AU) 0.0347 0.0007
(K) 2000 60
band: a1 = 0.673 , a2 = –0.340 , a3 = 0.666, a4 = –0.340
band: a1 = 0.570, a2 = –0.130, a3 = 0.391, a4 = –0.233
Errors are 1; Limb-darkening coefficients were:
Table 8: System parameters for WASP-142.

11 Wasp-142

WASP-142A is a = 12.3, F8 star with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.26 0.12. The transit of 4.13 0.04 is consistent with the spectroscopic value of 4.0 0.2. The evolutionary comparison (Fig. 15) gives an age estimate of 2.2–7.0 Gyr. The lithium age is marginally inconsistent at 2 Gyr.

A second star, WASP-142B, is fainter by 1.86 0.01 magnitudes and at 5.11 0.01 arcsecs from WASP-142 at a position angle of 45.7 0.1 degrees (values from an EulerCAM observation on 2014-12-13 with a filter). The 2014 December EulerCAM transit photometry used an aperture including both stars, and we corrected the lightcurve for the dilution in the analysis. The other EulerCAM transit and the two TRAPPIST transits used a smaller photometric aperture excluding the second star.

The 2MASS colours of WASP-142B ( = 13.42 0.04; = 13.03 0.04; = 12.94 0.03) are consistent with it being physically associated with WASP-142A ( = 11.73 0.03; = 11.48 0.03; = 11.44 0.03). UCAC4, however, reports a very different proper motion for WASP-142B (pmRA = –99.1  2.1, pmDec = 98.3  2.2 mas/yr) than for WASP-142A (pmRA = –3.1  3.5, pmDec = 3.7  3.1 mas/yr), which, if reliable, would rule out a physical association.

WASP-142Ab is a bloated planet of sub-Jupiter mass (1.53 R; 0.84 M) in a 2.1-d orbit. Again, WASP-142 is a fairly typical hot-Jupiter system.


Figure 14: WASP-142b radial velocities and bisector spans, as for Fig. 2.
Star Likeliest age 95% range Mass
[Gyr] [Gyr] [M]
WASP-130 1.4 0.2–7.9 1.03 0.04
WASP-131 7.5 4.5–10.1 1.06 0.06
WASP-132 1.8 0.9 0.80 0.04
WASP-139 0.0 9.8 0.92 0.04
WASP-140 8.3 1.7 0.90 0.04
WASP-141 3.2 1.5–5.6 1.25 0.06
WASP-142 3.6 2.2–7.0 1.32 0.08
Table 9: Bayesian mass and age estimates for the host stars.

Figure 15: Mean stellar densities versus effective temperatures. Each planet is plotted with the mass track (green-dashed line) and isochrone (red line) for the best-fitting mass and age as listed in Table 9.

12 Hot Jupiter period distribution

We take the opportunity to revisit the period distribution of gas giants in close orbits. We have thus taken all planets with masses 0.15–12 M listed in TEPCat, and added the unpublished WASP planets as far as WASP-166b, and plot the cumulatative period distribution in Fig. 16. This figure contains 321 planets out to 22 days, nearly doubling the 163 planets in the similar analysis in 2012MNRAS.426..739H.

The two “breaks” suggested by 2012MNRAS.426..739H at 1.2 d and 2.7 d are still present. The systems with periods 1.2 d are rare, despite having a greater range of inclinations that produce a transit, and despite being the easiest to find in transit surveys. They likely have short lifetimes owing to tidal inspiral. Above 2.7 d the hot-Jupiter “pileup” continues to a more gradual rollover over the range 4–7 d. Above 8 or 9 days the ground-based transit surveys will be less sensitive, and so one should be cautious in interpreting the distribution at longer periods.

Figure 16: The cumulative period distribution for transiting planets in the range 0.15–12 M. The red arrows mark breaks at 1.2 and 2.7 d suggested by Hellier et al. (2012). The lower panel compares the distributions for planets with host stars of above-solar (blue) and below-solar (red) metallicities.

2013ApJ...767L..24D analysed the Kepler sample of giant planets and found that the period distribution was strongly dependent on the metallicity of the host star (their Fig. 4). They suggested that the hot-Jupiter bulge is a feature only of metal-rich stars, and that the excess of hot Jupiters relative to longer-period giant planets is not present in a sample with [Fe/H] 0. Note, however, that their analysis depended on the use of KIC metallicities, which come from photometric colours and thus may not be fully reliable (2014ApJ...789L...3D).

Our above sample has very few planets beyond d and so cannot be used to test the 2013ApJ...767L..24D result itself. We can, however, address the related question of whether the period distribution within the hot-Jupiter bulge has a metallicity dependence, as might be the case if the formation of hot Jupiters depends strongly on metallicity. We thus take all the planets in our sample with host-star metallicities listed in TEPCat, plus those in this paper, noting that these metallicities come from spectroscopic analyses of relatively bright host stars.

We then divide the sample into metallicities above and below solar (192 and 79 planets, respectively). The two distributions are compared (after normalising them) in Fig. 16. A K–S test says that they are not significantly different, with a 40% chance of being drawn from the same distribution. Thus, there does not appear to be a metallicity dependence of the period distribution within the hot-Jupiter bulge, though the discovery of more longer-period giant planets is needed to test the 2013ApJ...767L..24D result itself.

13 Conclusions

The ongoing WASP surveys continue to discover novel objects which push the bounds of known exoplanets (e.g. the rapid circularisation timescale of WASP-140b) along with planets transiting bright stars which are good targets for atmospheric characterisation (e.g. WASP-131b, with a = 10.1 star). We also present the longest-period (WASP-130b), lowest-mass (WASP-139b) and second-coolest (WASP-132b) of WASP-discovered planets. We also demonstrate the power of WASP photometry in the possible detection of a 0.4-mmag rotational modulation of the star WASP-132.

Acknowledgements

WASP-South is hosted by the South African Astronomical Observatory and we are grateful for their ongoing support and assistance. Funding for WASP comes from consortium universities and from the UK’s Science and Technology Facilities Council. The Euler Swiss telescope is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. TRAPPIST is funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique, FNRS) under the grant FRFC 2.5.594.09.F, with the participation of the Swiss National Science Fundation (SNF). We acknowledge use of the ESO 3.6-m/HARPS under program 094.C-0090.

References

BJD – 2400 000 RV Bisector
(UTC) (km s) (km s) (km s)
WASP-130:
56715.83348 1.3460 0.0065 0.0282
56718.84774 1.4386 0.0063 0.0140
56723.84644 1.5129 0.0072 0.0320
56725.73618 1.4049 0.0075 0.0361
56726.67716 1.3829 0.0076 0.0882
56773.77647 1.3618 0.0107 0.0173
56776.76305 1.4474 0.0067 0.0037
56778.76460 1.5612 0.0097 0.0311
56779.70963 1.5670 0.0065 0.0238
56803.66375 1.5488 0.0106 0.0160
56808.72754 1.3549 0.0095 0.0595
56810.69012 1.4195 0.0085 0.0280
56811.67572 1.4753 0.0072 0.0015
56833.65206 1.4397 0.0092 0.0070
56837.60754 1.5885 0.0100 0.0266
56853.59045 1.3982 0.0123 0.0281
56879.53529 1.4451 0.0132 0.0495
57017.84985 1.4195 0.0075 0.0481
57031.82387 1.5514 0.0078 0.0306
57044.82648 1.6247 0.0076 0.0136
57071.81936 1.4552 0.0076 0.0389
57082.85670 1.4949 0.0075 0.0088
57188.55692 1.4048 0.0112 0.0578
57189.66971 1.3880 0.0109 0.0189
57406.84526 1.4635 0.0090 0.0094
57426.81680 1.5852 0.0058 0.0316
57453.72114 1.4143 0.0051 0.0416
Bisector errors are twice RV errors
Table A1: Radial velocities.
BJD – 2400 000 RV Bisector
(UTC) (km s) (km s) (km s)
WASP-131:
56694.86288 19.6343 0.0055 0.0340
56713.72539 19.6948 0.0071 0.0276
56723.89584 19.6926 0.0063 0.0166
56724.87344 19.6800 0.0058 0.0354
56726.70668 19.6420 0.0057 0.0422
56744.91236 19.6899 0.0059 0.0347
56745.85830 19.6902 0.0061 0.0186
56746.62422 19.6705 0.0061 0.0149
56748.84647 19.6348 0.0059 0.0442
56749.72097 19.6652 0.0054 0.0173
56769.58299 19.6365 0.0056 0.0183
56809.72416 19.6991 0.0058 0.0322
56810.71410 19.6629 0.0072 0.0371
56811.72508 19.6332 0.0070 0.0233
56830.66400 19.6960 0.0064 0.0280
56839.62346 19.6526 0.0067 0.0218
56864.52557 19.6406 0.0056 0.0354
57055.82138 19.6531 0.0059 0.0170
57071.84521 19.6406 0.0065 0.0135
57110.88171 19.6367 0.0077 0.0145
57139.77294 19.6875 0.0085 0.0156
57194.63654 19.6207 0.0080 0.0252
57458.77449 19.6801 0.0055 0.0431
WASP-132:
56717.73665 31.1460 0.0103 0.0087
56749.88330 31.0358 0.0111 0.0298
56772.83833 31.0369 0.0099 0.0359
56779.80482 31.0630 0.0130 0.0239
56781.68823 31.1323 0.0116 0.0406
56782.75296 31.1388 0.0107 0.0058
56803.73759 31.0888 0.0232 0.0482
56808.75158 31.0784 0.0157 0.0360
56810.73750 31.1109 0.0153 0.0722
56811.69973 31.0846 0.0132 0.0369
56813.73159 31.0472 0.0281 0.0266
56814.74102 31.0197 0.0139 0.0298
56830.68796 31.0877 0.0141 0.0027
56833.58020 31.0764 0.0133 0.0523
56840.60592 31.0667 0.0196 0.0671
56853.53751 31.1467 0.0504 0.0238
56855.61273 31.0228 0.0127 0.0198
56856.59422 31.0223 0.0105 0.0341
56880.53254 31.0585 0.0151 0.0006
56888.54232 31.0888 0.0133 0.0140
56889.52621 31.0884 0.0110 0.0412
56910.48465 31.0966 0.0222 0.0143
57031.85994 31.0528 0.0150 0.0006
57072.87336 31.0326 0.0118 0.0502
57085.80107 30.9265 0.0128 0.0155
57086.74260 30.9483 0.0131 0.0098
57111.67974 30.9845 0.0173 0.0246
57112.85851 30.9697 0.0291 0.0224
57114.83854 30.9679 0.0212 0.0530
57139.68574 31.0283 0.0215 0.0124
57194.67667 31.0018 0.0278 0.0526
57405.83694 30.9468 0.0130 0.0141
57412.84526 30.9293 0.0176 0.0042
57426.84822 30.9744 0.0103 0.0005
57428.82227 30.9898 0.0084 0.0045
57455.88964 30.9471 0.0127 0.0609
Bisector errors are twice RV errors
BJD – 2400 000 RV Bisector
(UTC) (km s) (km s) (km s)
WASP-139: CORALIE
54763.67767 13.0496 0.0201 0.0220
54766.72371 13.0095 0.0157 0.0082
54776.79057 12.9875 0.0254 0.0412
56211.82564 12.9931 0.0143 0.0039
56220.76495 13.0409 0.0129 0.0270
56516.89696 13.0298 0.0145 0.0481
56577.69538 13.0346 0.0114 0.0167
56578.87291 12.9959 0.0105 0.0434
56581.87217 13.0236 0.0101 0.0045
56623.78855 13.0314 0.0111 0.0041
56629.59554 13.0451 0.0116 0.0148
56873.90932 13.0314 0.0189 0.0315
56874.84054 12.9882 0.0137 0.0056
56876.88875 13.0143 0.0148 0.0299
56877.79318 13.0013 0.0168 0.0149
56879.89171 12.9778 0.0143 0.0597
56952.66033 12.9785 0.0170 0.0036
56987.55377 12.9923 0.0413 0.0157
56988.58979 12.9637 0.0170 0.0202
57038.59542 12.9972 0.0184 0.0707
57085.52067 13.0019 0.0154 0.0112
57286.88716 13.0439 0.0340 0.0055
57336.69857 13.0050 0.0302 0.0803
57367.71629 12.9748 0.0168 0.0425
WASP-139: HARPS
56927.79489 12.9888 0.0064 0.0186
56929.83816 12.9931 0.0058 0.0043
56948.67436 13.0052 0.0057 0.0002
56949.65985 13.0067 0.0062 0.0179
56951.74760 12.9814 0.0037 0.0021
56952.74043 12.9857 0.0041 0.0181
56953.76702 12.9860 0.0034 0.0121
56955.70180 13.0079 0.0029 0.0066
56957.86492 12.9971 0.0097 0.0048
56958.72499 12.9856 0.0050 0.0157
56959.70035 12.9962 0.0044 0.0032
56959.71448 12.9984 0.0048 0.0080
56959.72874 12.9900 0.0043 0.0126
56959.74518 12.9994 0.0034 0.0066
56959.76257 12.9952 0.0048 0.0093
56959.78116 12.9929 0.0046 0.0014
56959.79786 12.9955 0.0047 0.0101
56959.81611 12.9907 0.0054 0.0037
56959.83386 12.9970 0.0057 0.0112
56959.85175 12.9952 0.0060 0.0198
56959.86897 13.0020 0.0067 0.0217
56997.70376 13.0057 0.0039 0.0043
56999.72988 12.9820 0.0039 0.0058
57032.61218 13.0151 0.0055 0.0028
57033.58272 12.9941 0.0083 0.0073
57034.60223 12.9789 0.0062 0.0048
57035.58562 12.9898 0.0055 0.0182
Bisector errors are twice RV errors
BJD – 2400 000 RV Bisector
(UTC) (km s) (km s) (km s)
WASP-140:
56920.76077 2.5349 0.0098 0.0133
56930.82132 1.7340 0.0078 0.0621
56931.82218 2.5133 0.0072 0.0327
56936.79830 2.3340 0.0080 0.0200
56950.84894 1.7484 0.0075 0.0393
56953.78131 2.1478 0.0094 0.0583
56955.77226 1.8930 0.0080 0.0048
56956.82473 2.4086 0.0108 0.0331
56959.76870 1.7695 0.0083 0.0436
56965.86872 2.3001 0.0075 0.0341
56978.70617 2.5095 0.0120 0.0083
56979.66055 1.9375 0.0122 0.0167
56980.76045 2.3070 0.0108 0.0344
56983.78948 2.2687 0.0101 0.0310
56984.69862 1.7913 0.0094 0.0291
56987.58015 2.4201 0.0165 0.0227
57004.59553 1.7625 0.0100 0.0143
57019.69293 2.1414 0.0129 0.0144
57039.60065 2.3649 0.0105 0.0533
57060.61575 1.7552 0.0100 0.0184
57085.55015 1.9915 0.0094 0.0263
57339.77164 1.8358 0.0124 0.0171
57369.68260 2.1369 0.0230 0.0419
Bisector errors are twice RV errors
BJD – 2400 000 RV Bisector
(UTC) (km s) (km s) (km s)
WASP-141:
56955.84534 34.1669 0.0320 0.0300
56965.81124 34.1291 0.0208 0.0239
56990.59092 33.5216 0.0406 0.0124
56993.81477 33.5438 0.0472 0.0758
57011.63059 33.9947 0.0268 0.0174
57012.68022 33.9561 0.0401 0.0222
57014.72766 33.8971 0.0300 0.0412
57016.66733 33.6264 0.0293 0.0376
57033.72918 33.4964 0.0310 0.0756
57039.62726 33.7132 0.0392 0.0572
57040.67281 33.5825 0.0376 0.0010
57041.67337 34.1062 0.0497 0.0222
57065.65032 34.0360 0.0361 0.0875
57118.48484 34.0519 0.0695 0.0801
57291.83917 33.5517 0.1031 0.1949
57319.74513 34.0872 0.0708 0.1402
57333.80278 33.9814 0.0534 0.0012
57371.75720 33.6182 0.0412 0.0456
WASP-142:
56744.53717 47.2374 0.0201 0.0793
56747.54086 47.0456 0.0262 0.0789
56771.61011 47.1023 0.0260 0.0468
56772.58229 47.0722 0.0258 0.0260
56779.61261 47.2061 0.0321 0.0846
56803.51322 47.1629 0.0277 0.0273
56987.86072 46.9854 0.0584 0.1158
56996.81308 47.1962 0.0423 0.0225
57018.73174 47.0535 0.0390 0.0523
57022.76169 46.9974 0.0330 0.0288
57026.86587 46.9604 0.0300 0.0346
57043.67305 47.1643 0.0568 0.0103
57070.67363 47.2080 0.0326 0.0080
57072.63982 47.2065 0.0425 0.0156
57402.72844 47.0586 0.0499 0.0392
57432.63093 47.1446 0.0269 0.0052
Bisector errors are twice RV errors

Footnotes

  1. pagerange: range
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