Towards Bounding-Box Free Panoptic Segmentation
In this work we introduce a new bounding-box free network (BBFNet) for panoptic segmentation. Panoptic segmentation is an ideal problem for a bounding-box free approach as it already requires per-pixel semantic class labels. We use this observation to exploit class boundaries from an off-the-shelf semantic segmentation network and refine them to predict instance labels. Towards this goal BBFNet predicts coarse watershed levels and use it to detect large instance candidates where boundaries are well defined. For smaller instances, whose boundaries are less reliable, BBFNet also predicts instance centers by means of Hough voting followed by mean-shift to reliably detect small objects. A novel triplet loss network helps merging fragmented instances while refining boundary pixels. Our approach is distinct from previous works in panoptic segmentation that rely on a combination of a semantic segmentation network with a computationally costly instance segmentation network based on bounding boxes, such as Mask R-CNN, to guide the prediction of instance labels using a Mixture-of-Expert (MoE) approach. We benchmark our non-MoE method on Cityscapes and Microsoft COCO datasets and show competitive performance with other MoE based approaches while outperfroming exisiting non-proposal based approaches. We achieve this while been computationally more efficient in terms of number of parameters and FLOPs. Video results are provided here https://blog.slamcore.com/reducing-the-cost-of-understanding
Panoptic segmentation is the joint task of predicting semantic scene segmentation together with individual instances of objects present in the scene. Historically this has been explored under different umbrella terms of scene understanding  and scene parsing . In , Kirillov et al\onedotcoined the term and gave a more concrete definition by including Forsyth et al\onedot  suggestion of splitting the objects categories into things (countable objects like persons, cars, etc.) and stuff (uncountable like sky, road, etc.) classes. While stuff classes require only semantic label prediction, things need both the semantic and the instance labels. Along with this definition, Panoptic Quality (PQ) measure was proposed to benchmark different methods. Since then, there has been a more concentrated effort towards panoptic segmentation with multiple datasets [7, 23, 25] supporting it.
|(a) Semantic Segmentation Head||(b) Watershed Head|
|(c) Hough Voting Head||(d) Triplet Loss Head|
Existing methods address this as a Multi-Task Learning (MTL) problem with different branches (or networks) used to predict the instance and scene segmentation. Traditionally these methods use completely separate instance and scene segmentation networks although more recently some works propose sharing a common feature backbone for both networks [16, 28]. Using a Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) approach the outputs are combined either heuristically or through another sub-network. In this work we show that instance information already exists in a semantic segmentation network. To support this we present Bounding-Box Free Network (BBFNet) which can be added to the head of any off-the-shelf semantic segmentation network. By gradually refining the class boundaries predicted by the base network, BBFNet predicts both the things and stuff information in a scene. Without using MoE our method produces comparable results to existing approaches while being computationally efficient. Furthermore, the different sub-modules of BBFNet are end-to-end trainable while the base network requires no extra information.
An additional benefit of our proposed method is that we do not need bounding-box predictions. While bounding-box detection based approaches have been popular and successful, they require predicting auxiliary quantities like scale, width and height which do not directly contribute to instance segmentation. Furthermore, the choice of bounding-boxes for object-detection had been questioned in the past . We believe panoptic segmentation to be an ideal problem for a bounding-box free approach since it already contains structured information from semantic segmentation. To achieve this we exploit previous works in non-proposal based methods for instance segmentation [3, 5, 26]. Based on the output of a semantic segmentation network, BBFNet first detects noisy and fragmented large instance candidates using a watershed-level prediction head (see Fig. 1). These candidate regions are clustered and their boundaries improved with a novel triplet loss based head. The remaining smaller instances, with unreliable boundaries, are detected using a Hough voting head that predicts the offsets to the center of the instance. Mean-shift clustering followed by vote back-tracing is used to reliably detect the smaller instances.
To summarise, we present BBFNet for panoptic segmentation which a bounding-box free end-to-end trainable non-MoE approach for panoptic segmentation network that does not use the output of any instance segmentation or detection network while outperforming existing non-proposal based methods. The next section briefly describes the related work in panoptic and instance segmentation. In we introduce BBFNet and explain its various components along with its training and inference steps. introduces the datasets used in our experiments and briefly describes the different metrics used for benchmarking panoptic segmentation. Implementation details are given in . Using ablation studies along with qualitative results we show the advantages of each of its components. Qualitative and quantitative results are presented in we and used to benchmark BBFNet against existing MoE based approaches.
2 Related WorkDespite the recent introduction of panoptic segmentation there have already been multiple works attempting to address this [9, 19, 21, 41]. This is in part due to its importance to the wider community, success in individual subtasks of instance and semantic segmentation and publicly available datasets to benchmark different methods. We review related work and tasks here. Panoptic Segmentation: Current works in panoptic segmentation are built upon a similar template of MTL followed by MoE. In , the authors use separate networks for semantic segmentation (stuff) and instance segmentation (things) with a heuristic MoE fusion of the two results for the final prediction. Realising the duplication of feature extractors in the two related tasks, [16, 19, 21, 28, 41] propose using a single backbone feature extractor network. This is followed by separate branches for the two sub-tasks (MTL) with a heuristic or learnable MoE head to combine the results. While panoptic Feature Pyramid Networks (FPN)  uses Mask R-CNN  for the things classes and fills in the stuff classes using a separate FPN branch, UPSNet  combines the resized logits of the two branches to predict the final output. In AUNet , attention masks predicted from the Region Proposal Network (RPN) and the instance segmentation head help fusing the results of the two tasks. Instead of relying only on the instance segmentation branch, TASCNet  predicts a coherent mask for the things and stuff classes using both branches. This is later filled with the respective outputs. All these methods rely on Mask R-CNN  for predicting things. Mask R-CNN is a two-stage instance segmentation network which uses a RPN to predict initial candidates for instance. The proposed candidates are either discarded or refined and a separate head produces segmentation for the remaining candidates. The two-stage, serial approach makes Mask R-CNN accurate albeit computationally expensive thus slowing progress towards real-time panoptic segmentation. In FPSNet  the authors replace Mask R-CNN with a computationally less expensive detection network, RetinaNet , and use its output as a soft attention masks to guide the prediction of things classes. This trade off is at a cost of considerable reduction in accuracy. Furthermore RetinaNet still uses bounding-boxes for predicting things. In  the detection network is replaced with an object proposal which predicts instance candidates. Similarly, in  the authors predict the direction to the center and replace bounding box detection with template matching using these predicted directions as a feature. Instead of template matching, [2, 20] use a dynamically initiated conditional random field graph from the output of an object detector to segment instances. In , graph partioning is performed on an affinity pyramid computed within a fixed window for each pixel. In comparison, our work predicts things by refining the segmentation boundaries that can be obtained from any segmentation network.
3 Panoptic Segmentation
In this section we introduce our non-bounding box approach to panoptic segmentation. Fig. 2 shows the various blocks of our network and Table 1 details the main components of BBFNet. The backbone semantic segmentation network consists of a ResNet50 followed by an FPN . In FPN, we only use the P2, P3, P4 and P5 feature maps which contain channels each and are , , and of the original scale respectively. Each feature map then passes through the same series of eight deformable convolution blocks . Intermediate features after every couple of deformable convolutions are used to predict semantic segmentation (), Hough votes (), watershed energies () and features for the triplet loss  network. We first explain each of these components and their corresponding training loss. In () we explain our training and inference steps. Through ablation studies we show the advantages of each block in ().
3.1 Semantic Segmentation
The first head in BBFNet is used to predict semantic segmentation. This allows BBFNet to quickly predict things () and stuff () labels while the remainder of BBFNet improves things boundaries using semantic segmentation features . The loss function used to train semantic segmentation is a per-pixel cross-entropy loss given by:
where and are respectively the one-hot ground truth label and predicted softmax probability for class .
3.2 Hough Voting
The Hough voting head is similar to the semantic segmentation head and is used to refine to give Hough features . These are then used to predict offsets for the center of each things pixel. We use a non-linearity to squash the predictions and obtain normalised offsets ( and ). Along with the centers we also predict the uncertainty in the two directions ( and ) making the number of predictions from the Hough voting head equal to . The predicted center for each pixel (, ), is then given by:
where is the predicted class.
Hough voting is inherently noisy  and requires clustering or mode seeking methods like mean-shift  to predict the final object centers. As instances could have different scales, tuning clustering hyper-parameters is difficult. For this reason we use Hough voting primarily to detect small objects and to filter predictions from other heads. We also observe that the dense loss from the Hough voting head helps convergence of deeper heads in our network.
The loss for this head is only for the thing pixels and is given by:
where and are ground truth offsets and is the per pixel weight. To avoid bias towards large objects, we inversely weigh the instances based on the number of pixels. This allows it to accurately predict the centers for objects of all sizes. Note that we only predict the centers for the visible regions of an instance and do not consider its occluded regions.
3.3 Watershed Energies
Our watershed head is inspired from DWT . Similar to that work, we quantise the watershed levels into fixed number of bins (). The lowest bin () corresponds to background and regions that are within 2 pixels inside the instance boundary. Similarly, , are for regions that are within 5 and 15 pixels away from the instance boundary, respectively, while is for the remaining region inside the instance.
In DWT, the bin corresponding to is used to detect large instance boundaries. While this does reasonably well for large objects, it fails for smaller objects producing erroneous boundaries. Furthermore, occluded instances that are fragmented cannot be detected as a single object. For this reason we use this head only for predicting large object candidates which are filtered and refined using predictions from other heads.
Due to the fine quantisation of watershed levels, rather than directly predicting the upsampled resolution, we gradually refine the lower resolution feature maps while also merging higher resolution features from the backbone semantic segmentation network. is first transformed into followed by further refining into as detailed in table 1. Features from the shallowest convolution block of ResNet are then concatenated with and further refined with two convolution to predict the four watershed levels.
We use a weighted cross-entropy loss to train this given by:
where is the one-hot ground truth for watershed level, its predicted probability and its weights.
3.4 Triplet Loss Network
The triplet loss network is used to refine and merge the detected candidate instance in addition to detecting new instances. Towards this goal, a popular choice is to formulate it as an embedding problem using triplet loss . This loss forces features of pixels belonging to the same instance to group together while pushing apart features of pixels from different instances. Margin-separation loss is usually employed for better instance separation and is given by:
where , , are the anchor, positive and negative pixel features resp\onedotand is the margin. Choosing is not easy and depends on the complexity of the feature space . Instead, here we opt for a two fully-connected network to classify the pixel features and formulate it as a binary classification problem:
We use the cross-entropy loss to train this head.
is the ground truth one-hot label for the indicator function and the predicted probability.
The pixel feature used for this network is a concatenation of (see Table 1), its normalised position in the image (), and the outputs of the different heads (, , , , and ).
3.5 Training and Inference
We train the whole network along with its heads in an end-to-end fashion using a weighted loss function:
|ups, cat, conv-512-(+), ups||Segmentation|
|ups, cat, conv-512-128, conv-128-(4), ups||Hough|
|ups, cat, conv-512-128, conv-128-16, ups|
|ups, cat, conv-512-128, conv-128-128, ups|
For the triplet loss network, training with all pixels is prohibitively expensive. Instead we randomly choose a fixed number of anchor pixels for each instance. Hard positive examples are obtained by sampling from the farthest pixels to the object center and correspond to watershed level . For hard negative examples, neighbouring instances’ pixels closest to the anchor and belonging to the same class are given higher weight. Only half of the anchors use hard example mining while the rest use random sampling.
We observe that large objects are easily detected by the watershed head while Hough voting based center prediction does well when objects are of the same scale. To exploit this observation, we detect large object candidates () using connected components on the watershed predictions corresponding to bins. We then filter out candidates whose predicted Hough center () does not fall within their bounding boxes (). These filtered out candidates are fragmented regions of occluded objects or false detections. Using the center pixel of the remaining candidates () as anchors points, the triplet loss network refines them over the remaining pixels allowing us to detect fragmented regions while also improving their boundary predictions.
After the initial watershed step, the unassigned thing pixels corresponding to and primarily belong to small instances. We use mean-shift clustering with fixed bandwidth () to predict candidate object centers, . We then back-trace pixels voting for their centers to obtain the Hough predictions .
Finally, from the remaining unassigned pixels we randomly pick an anchor point and test it with the other remaining pixels. We use this as candidates regions that are filtered () based on their Hough center predictions, similar to the watershed candidates. The final detections are the union of these predictions. We summarize these steps in algorithm 1 provided in the supplementary section .
In this section we evaluate the performance of BBFNet and present the results we obtain. We first describe the datasets and the evaluation metrics used. In we describe the implementation details of our network. then discusses the performance of individual heads and how its combination helps improve the overall accuracies. We presents both the qualitative and quantitative results in and give a brief analysis of the computational advantage of BBFNet over other methods. We end this section by presenting some of the failure cases in and comparing them with other MoE+BB based approaches.
4.1 Implementation Details
We use the pretrained ImageNet  models for ResNet50 and FPN and train the BBFNet head from scratch. We keep the backbone fixed for initial epochs before training the whole network jointly. In the training loss (eq\onedot 8), we set and parameters to , , and respectively, since we found this to be a good balance between the different losses. The mean-shift bandwidth is set to reduced pixels of to help the Hough voting head detect smaller instances. In the watershed head, the number of training pixels decreases with and needs to be offset by higher . We found the weights to work best for our experiments. Moreover, these weights help the network focus on detecting pixels corresponding to lower bins on whom the connected-component is performed. To train the triplet-loss network head we set the number of pixels per object . For smaller instance, we sample with repetition so as to give equal importance to objects of all sizes.
To improve robustness we augment the training data by randomly cropping the images and adding alpha noise, flipping and affine transformations. Cityscapes dataset is trained with full resolution. For COCO, the longest edge of each image is resized to while keeping the aspect ratio same.
A common practice during inference is to remove prediction with low detection probability to avoid penalising twice (FP & FN) . In BBFNet these correspond to regions with poor segmentation (class or boundary). We use the mean segmentation probability over the predicted region as the detection probability and filter regions with low probability (). Furthermore, we also observe boundaries shared between multiple objects to be frequently predicted as different instances. We filter these by having a threshold () on the IoU between the segmented prediction and its corresponding bounding box.
4.2 Ablation studies
We conduct ablation studies here to show the advantage of each individual head and how BBFNet exploits them. Table 2 shows the results of our experiments on Cityscapes. We use the validation sets for all our experiements. We observe that watershed or Hough voting heads alone do not perform well. In the case of watershed head this is because performing connected component analysis on level (as proposed in ) leads to poor segmentation quality (). Note that performing the watershed cut at is also not optimal as this leads to multiple instances that share boundaries being grouped into a single detection. By combining the Watershed head with a refining step from the triplet loss network we observe over point improvement in accuracy.
On the other hand, the performance of the Hough voting head depends on the bandwidth that is used. Fig. 3 plots its performance with varying . As increases from to pixels we observe an initial increase in overall PQ before it saturates. This is because while the performance increases on large objects ( pixels), it reduces on small ( pixels) and medium sized objects. However, we observe that at lower it outperforms the Watershed+triplet loss head on smaller objects. We exploit this in BBFNet (see ) by using the watershed+triplet loss head for larger objects while using Hough voting head primarily for smaller objects.
4.3 Experimental Results
Table 3 benchmarks the performance of BBFNet with existing methods. As all state-of-the-art methods report results with ResNet50+FPN networks while using the same pre-training dataset (ImageNet) we also follow this convention and report our results with this setup. Multi-scale testing was used in some works but we omit those results here as this can be applied to any existing work including BBFNet improving the predictions. From the result we observe that BBFNet, without using an MoE or BB, has comparable performance to other MoE+BB based methods while outperforming other non-BB based methods on most metrics. Fig. 4 shows some qualitative results on the Cityscapes validation dataset.
|P. FPN ||✓||57.7||51.6||62.2||75.0|
|Porzi et al\onedot ||✓||60.3||56.1||63.6||77.5|
|(a) Input Image||(b) Ground truth||(c) BBFNet predictions|
In Table 4 we benchmark the quantitative performance on the Microsoft COCO dataset while qualitative results are shown in figure 6. Similar to the methodology used for Cityscapes we report results with same backbone and with same pre-training. We present results on individual classes in the supplementary material. BBFnet outperforms all exisiting non-BB methods while using a more efficient network backbone compared with others(ResNet50 vs ResNet101).
|P. FPN ||✓||39.0||45.9||28.7||41.0|
As BBFNet does not use a separate instance segmentation head, its computationally more efficient using only parameters compared to in UPSNet and in . We find a similar pattern when we compare the number of FLOPs on a image with BBFNet taking TFLOPs compared to TFLOPs of UPSNet and for . Note that TFLOPs correspond to the ResNet50+FPN backbone which is used in both methods making BBFNet times more efficient in terms of FLOPs compared to .
To highlight BBFNets ability to work with different segmentation backbones we compare its generalisation with different segmentation networks. From table 5 we observe that BBFNets performance improves with better semantic segmentation backbones.
4.4 Error Analysis
We discuss the reasons for performance difference between our bounding-box free method and ones that use bounding-box proposals. UPSNet  is used as a benchmark as it shares common features with other methods. Table 6 depicts the number of predictions made for different sized objects in the Cityscapes validation dataset. We report the True Positive (TP), False Positive (FP) and the False Negative (FN) values.
|(a) Input Image||(b) Ground truth||(c) BBFNet predictions||(d) Incorrect predictions|
One of the areas where BBFNet performs poorly is the number of small object detections. BBFNet detects of the smaller objects compared to UPSNet. Poor segmentation (wrong class label or inaccurate boundary prediction) also leads to a relatively higher FP for medium and large sized objects. Figure 5 shows some sample examples. The multi-head MoE approach helps addressing these issues but at the cost of additional complexity and computation time of Mask R-CNN as shown in . For applications where time or memory are more critical compared to detecting smaller objects, BBFNet would be a more suited solution.
5 Conclusions and Future Work
We presented an efficient bounding-box free panoptic segmentation method called BBFNet. Unlike previous methods, BBFNet does not use any instance segmentation network to predict things. It instead refines the boundaries from the semantic segmentation output obtained from any off-the-shelf segmentation network. In this process we reduce the computational complexity while showing comparable performance with existing state-of-the-art methods in panoptic segmentation benchmarks.
In the next future we would like to improve the performance of BBFNet on small objects and to experiment with faster segmentation networks  towards the goal of expanding the capabilities of visual Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (vSLAM)  with semantics and individual object instances.
We would like to thank Prof. Andrew Davison and Alexandre Morgand for their critical feedback during the course of this work.
- D. Acuna, A. Kar, and S. Fidler. Devil is in the edges: Learning semantic boundaries from noisy annotations. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pages 11075–11083, 2019.
- A. Arnab and P. H. Torr. Pixelwise instance segmentation with a dynamically instantiated network. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017.
- M. Bai and R. Urtasun. Deep watershed transform for instance segmentation. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pages 2858–2866, 2017.
- D. H. Ballard. Generalizing the hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes. Pattern Recognition, 13(2):111–122, 1981.
- B. De Brabandere, D. Neven, and L. Van Gool. Semantic instance segmentation with a discriminative loss function. arXiv preprint arXiv:arXiv:1708.02551, 2017.
- Y. Cheng. Mean shift, mode seeking, and clustering. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., 17(8):790–799, 1995.
- M. Cordts, M. Omran, S. Ramos, T. Rehfeld, M. Enzweiler, R. Benenson, U. Franke, S. Roth, and B. Schiele. The cityscapes dataset for semantic urban scene understanding. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2016.
- J. Dai, H. Qi, Y. Xiong, Y. Li, G. Zhang, H. Hu, and Y. Wei. Deformable convolutional networks. In Intl. Conf. on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2017.
- D. de Geus, P. Meletis, and G. Dubbelman. Fast panoptic segmentation network. arXiv preprint arXiv:arXiv:1910.03892, 2019.
- J. Deng, W. Dong, R. Socher, L.-J. Li, K. Li, and L. Fei-Fei. ImageNet: A Large-Scale Hierarchical Image Database. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2009.
- D. Forsyth, J. Malik, M. Fleck, H. Greenspan, T. Leung, S. Belongie, C. Carson, and C. Bregler. Finding pictures of objects in large collections of images. In Intl. workshop on object representation in computer vision, 1996.
- N. Gao, Y. Shan, Y. Wang, X. Zhao, Y. Yu, M. Yang, and K. Huang. SSAP: Single-shot instance segmentation with affinity pyramid. In Intl. Conf. on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2019.
- K. He, G. Gkioxari, P. Dollár, and R. Girshick. Mask R-CNN. In Intl. Conf. on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2017.
- K. He, X. Zhang, S. Ren, and J. Sun. Deep residual learning for image recognition. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2015.
- Y. Hu, Y. Zou, and J. Feng. Panoptic edge detection. arXiv preprint arXiv:arXiv:1906.00590, 2019.
- A. Kirillov, R. Girshick, K. He, and P. Dollár. Panoptic feature pyramid networks. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.
- A. Kirillov, K. He, R. Girshick, C. Rother, and P. Dollár. Panoptic segmentation. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.
- L. Ladický, C. Russell, P. Kohli, and P. H. S. Torr. Associative hierarchical CRFs for object class image segmentation. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pages 739–746, 2009.
- J. Li, A. Raventos, A. Bhargava, T. Tagawa, and A. Gaidon. Learning to fuse things and stuff. arXiv preprint arXiv:arXiv:1812.01192, 2019.
- Q. Li, A. Arnab, and P. H. Torr. Weakly-and semi-supervised panoptic segmentation. In Eur. Conf. on Computer Vision (ECCV), 2018.
- Y. Li, X. Chen, Z. Zhu, L. Xie, G. Huang, D. Du, and X. Wang. Attention-guided unified network for panoptic segmentation. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.
- T. Lin, P. Goyal, R. Girshick, K. He, and P. Dollár. Focal loss for dense object detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., 2018.
- T. Lin, M. Maire, S. Belongie, J. Hays, P. Perona, D. Ramanan, P. Dollár, and C. L. Zitnick. Microsoft COCO: Common objects in context. In Eur. Conf. on Computer Vision (ECCV), 2014.
- J. McCormac, R. Clarck, M. Bloesch, S. Leutenegger, and A. J. Davison. Fusion++: Volumetric Object-Level SLAM. In Intl. Conf. on 3D Vision (3DV), 2018.
- G. Neuhold, T. Ollmann, S. R. Bulò, and P. Kontschieder. The Mapillary Vistas dataset for semantic understanding of street scenes. In Intl. Conf. on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2017.
- D. Neven, B. De Brabandere, S. Georgoulis, M. Proesmans, and L. Van Gool. Fast scene understanding for autonomous driving. arXiv preprint arXiv:arXiv:1708.02550, 2017.
- D. Neven, B. D. Brabandere, M. Proesmans, and L. V. Gool. Instance segmentation by jointly optimizing spatial embeddings and clustering bandwidth. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.
- L. Porzi, S. R. Bulò, A. Colovic, and Peter Kontschieder. Seamless Scene Segmentation. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.
- R. P. Poudel, U. Bonde, S. Liwicki, and C. Zach. ContextNet: Exploring context and detail for semantic segmentation in real-time. In British Machine Vision Conf. (BMVC), 2018.
- J. Redmon, S. Divvala, R. Girshick, and A. Farhadi. You only look once: Unified, real-time object detection. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2016.
- J. Redmon and A. Farhadi. Yolov3: An incremental improvement. arXiv preprint arXiv:arXiv:1804.02767, 2018.
- S. Ren, K. He, R. Girshick, and J. Sun. Faster R-CNN: Towards real-time object detection with region proposal networks. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), 2015.
- E. Romera, J. M. Álvarez, L. M. Bergasa, and R. Arroyo. ERFNet: Efficient Residual Factorized ConvNet for Real-Time Semantic Segmentation. In IEEE Trans. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, volume 19, pages 263–272, 2018.
- J. Shotton, J. Winn, C. Rother, and A. Criminisi. Textonboost for image understanding: Multi-class object recognition and segmentation by jointly modeling texture, layout, and context. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., 81(1):2–23, 2009.
- K. Sofiiuk, O. Barinova, and A. Konushin. Adaptis: Adaptive instance selection network. In Intl. Conf. on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2019.
- T. Lin, P. Dollár, R. Girshick, K. He, B. Hariharan, and S. Belongie. Feature pyramid networks for object detection. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017.
- J. Tighe, M. Niethammer, and S. Lazebnik. Scene parsing with object instances and occlusion ordering. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2014.
- J. Uhrig, M. Cordts, U. Franke, and T. Brox. Pixel-level encoding and depth layering for instance-level semantic labeling. In German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR), 2016.
- L. Vincent and P. Soille. Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., 13(6):583–598, 1991.
- K. Q. Weinberger and L. K. Saul. Distance metric learning for large margin nearest neighbor classification. J. of Machine Learning Research, 2009.
- Y. Xiong, R. Liao, H. Zhao, R. Hu, M. Bai, E. Yumer, and R. Urtasun. UPSNet: A unified panoptic segmentation network. In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019.
- T. Yang, M. Collins, Y. Zhu amd J. Hwang, T. Liu, X. Zhang, V. Sze, G. Papandreou, and L. Chen. Deeperlab: Single-shot image parser. arXiv preprint arXiv:arXiv:1902.05093, 2019.
J. Yao, S. Fidler, and R. Urtasun.
Describing the scene as a whole: joint object detection.
In IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Appendix A Supplementary
a.1 Inference AlgorithmWe summarise the inference steps detailed in in an algorithm 1 1Watershed levels , predicted class , probability , and 2 connected-components on . Large instance candidates 3 bounding-box of . 4, . 5. Filter candidates 6 & . 6 7 meanshift . Small instances 8 Back-trace pixels voting for 9while do Remaining instances 10 Random(c) & . 6 11end while 12 bounding-box of . 13, . 14. Filter candidates 15
a.2 Cityscapes datasetTable 7 gives the per-class results for the Cityscapes dataset. The first 11 classes are stuff while the rest 8 are thing label. class PQ SQ RQ PQ PQ PQ road 97.9 98.2 99.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 sidewalk 74.9 84.0 89.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 building 87.4 89.2 98.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 wall 26.2 72.0 36.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 fence 27.6 72.9 37.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 pole 50.8 65.2 77.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 T. light 40.7 68.4 59.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 T. sign 64.8 76.4 84.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 vegetation 88.3 90.3 97.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 terrain 27.6 72.4 38.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 sky 85.1 91.9 92.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 person 48.0 76.3 62.9 22.9 62.0 81.9 rider 43.8 71.2 61.6 11.2 54.3 71.7 car 64.7 84.5 76.5 32.2 72.2 91.5 truck 48.2 84.5 57.0 6.7 37.3 72.3 bus 69.1 88.5 78.1 0.0 49.6 85.0 train 46.1 80.7 57.1 0.0 10.7 64.2 motorcycle 36.9 72.5 50.9 8.9 44.3 56.6 bicycle 40.6 70.2 57.9 17.4 47.1 56.8
a.3 COCO datasetTables 8, 9 and 10 give the per-class results for the COCO dataset. The first 80 classes are things while the rest 53 are stuff label. class PQ SQ RQ PQ PQ PQ person 51.7 77.7 66.5 32.0 55.7 71.1 bicycle 17.6 66.9 26.4 7.9 19.5 33.2 car 42.1 81.0 52.0 30.9 54.9 56.0 motorcycle 40.6 74.1 54.8 13.7 35.7 58.9 airplane 56.8 78.0 72.7 45.4 37.5 72.3 bus 52.0 87.8 59.3 0.0 34.1 76.4 train 50.0 84.2 59.4 0.0 16.8 56.2 truck 24.3 78.4 31.0 13.3 21.5 36.7 boat 23.1 68.2 33.9 10.9 32.2 37.5 T. light 36.7 77.3 47.4 31.4 51.5 69.8 F. hydrant 77.5 87.1 88.9 0.0 71.6 91.3 S. sign 80.4 91.3 88.0 36.5 88.5 92.6 P. meter 56.2 87.9 64.0 0.0 48.6 82.0 bench 17.2 67.9 25.4 11.0 23.4 13.5 bird 28.2 73.5 38.4 15.0 47.5 78.6 cat 86.3 91.2 94.6 0.0 78.7 89.0 dog 69.3 86.0 80.6 0.0 58.5 82.9 horse 56.5 78.7 71.8 0.0 47.6 71.5 sheep 49.5 79.0 62.6 23.7 59.1 80.7 cow 42.3 82.5 51.4 0.0 32.4 70.1 elephant 63.0 83.9 75.0 0.0 37.4 71.5 bear 64.5 85.0 75.9 0.0 56.2 75.8 zebra 74.3 88.2 84.2 0.0 71.6 81.9 giraffe 73.1 82.2 88.9 0.0 77.0 72.4 backpack 9.6 83.5 11.5 2.8 16.4 34.7 umbrella 50.2 81.9 61.3 21.6 57.2 64.3 handbag 12.8 74.6 17.2 2.8 20.4 29.7 tie 29.8 77.6 38.5 0.0 56.2 51.4 suitcase 51.6 79.9 64.6 16.7 51.6 70.2 frisbee 70.4 85.8 82.1 51.1 77.7 93.0 skis 4.5 71.2 6.3 0.0 12.4 0.0 snowboard 24.2 65.3 37.0 9.5 34.3 0.0 kite 27.1 72.4 37.5 25.8 21.7 43.6 B. bat 23.8 67.9 35.0 35.0 8.5 0.0 B. glove 37.7 83.6 45.2 18.6 74.3 0.0 skateboard 37.3 71.5 52.2 0.0 48.8 50.6 surfboard 48.5 75.2 64.4 29.8 49.0 69.0 T. racket 58.1 83.0 70.0 27.1 68.6 86.7 bottle 38.6 80.7 47.8 29.5 49.4 81.8 wine glass 38.7 79.3 48.8 0.0 44.4 86.1 cup 48.5 88.1 55.0 15.9 70.9 75.6 fork 8.5 63.5 13.3 7.2 10.4 0.0 knife 17.7 78.7 22.5 0.0 26.3 68.2 spoon 20.2 76.4 26.4 0.0 36.9 0.0 bowl 29.9 78.6 38.0 17.3 32.2 39.8 banana 16.5 76.4 21.6 4.0 22.1 35.5 apple 30.4 87.5 34.8 8.0 63.6 51.3 sandwich 31.8 88.4 36.0 0.0 34.2 32.9 orange 59.8 88.3 67.7 36.1 37.9 82.8 broccoli 22.4 74.9 30.0 0.0 20.3 42.6 carrot 17.3 74.2 23.3 12.4 24.1 0.0 hot dog 26.5 68.6 38.6 13.7 29.6 27.5 pizza 44.5 83.2 53.5 12.6 37.5 54.5 donut 44.5 86.5 51.4 45.2 26.2 72.2
class PQ SQ RQ PQ PQ PQ cake 49.9 90.2 55.3 0.0 31.6 62.3 chair 24.0 74.3 32.3 7.4 33.6 41.5 couch 44.1 80.8 54.5 0.0 32.4 52.4 P. plant 27.2 74.1 36.7 16.6 33.1 27.3 bed 48.4 82.0 59.0 0.0 0.0 57.2 D. table 13.0 71.5 18.2 0.0 7.7 21.0 toilet 73.2 86.9 84.2 0.0 58.3 78.5 tv 57.2 86.8 66.0 0.0 49.4 72.2 laptop 57.2 81.7 70.0 0.0 44.0 67.9 mouse 68.2 86.6 78.8 44.3 81.0 62.6 remote 20.7 80.1 25.8 6.8 48.8 0.0 keyboard 52.4 85.2 61.5 0.0 46.8 72.2 cell phone 46.1 84.9 54.3 15.0 66.2 58.1 microwave 61.3 91.9 66.7 0.0 60.7 94.8 oven 33.3 79.1 42.1 0.0 19.5 42.4 toaster 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 sink 49.5 81.8 60.5 30.8 56.8 45.7 refrigerator 30.6 87.2 35.1 0.0 12.0 41.9 book 8.1 70.6 11.5 6.3 11.6 13.1 clock 59.3 86.4 68.7 40.9 68.1 92.5 vase 31.8 80.5 39.4 22.4 35.3 42.5 scissors 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 teddy bear 49.0 82.4 59.4 0.0 39.8 72.8 hair drier 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 toothbrush 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 banner 5.5 79.9 6.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 blanket 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 bridge 22.0 71.3 30.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 cardboard 16.6 75.7 21.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 counter 19.7 67.8 29.0 0.0 0.0 0. curtain 45.6 83.0 54.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 door-stuff 24.4 72.8 33.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 floor-wood 35.5 82.7 43.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 flower 12.5 65.8 19.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 fruit 5.4 65.0 8.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 gravel 11.6 63.5 18.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 house 13.5 72.5 18.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 light 16.1 67.5 23.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 mirror-stuff 28.2 80.4 35.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 net 33.7 84.3 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 pillow 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 platform 10.3 92.5 11.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 playingfield 69.4 87.6 79.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 railroad 25.5 72.9 35.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 river 22.2 82.1 27.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 road 45.6 83.1 54.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 roof 5.2 80.8 6.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 sand 40.6 91.4 44.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 sea 71.0 91.6 77.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 shelf 8.8 76.3 11.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 snow 81.0 91.8 88.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 stairs 10.9 65.4 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 tent 5.3 53.3 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 towel 16.8 77.7 21.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 class PQ SQ RQ PQ PQ PQ wall-brick 24.7 77.6 31.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 wall-stone 10.0 92.1 10.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 wall-tile 35.2 75.7 46.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 wall-wood 14.3 76.2 18.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 water-other 20.9 80.3 26.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 window-blind 44.6 84.7 52.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 window-other 22.2 73.7 30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 tree-merged 64.6 80.7 80.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 fence-merged 19.7 74.9 26.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 ceiling-merged 57.3 81.8 70.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 sky-other-merged 76.9 90.4 85.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 cabinet-merged 33.1 79.7 41.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 table-merged 15.9 72.1 22.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 floor-other-merged 29.5 80.3 36.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 pavement-merged 36.4 78.9 46.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 mountain-merged 39.7 76.9 51.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 grass-merged 50.3 81.2 61.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 dirt-merged 27.4 77.0 35.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 paper-merged 4.7 74.6 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 food-other-merged 14.0 78.7 17.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 building-other-merged 29.3 76.4 38.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 rock-merged 31.0 78.4 39.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 wall-other-merged 45.6 79.2 57.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 rug-merged 38.3 82.7 46.4 0.0 0.0 0.0