Spectra of Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

Spectroscopy of Faint Kepler Mission Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

Mark E. Everett 1 , Steve B. Howell 2 3 , David R. Silva 1 , and Paula Szkody 4 3
1affiliation: National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
2affiliation: NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
4affiliation: Visiting Astronomer, Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.
3affiliation: Dept. of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Abstract

Stellar properties are measured for a large set of Kepler Mission exoplanet candidate host stars. Most of these stars are fainter than magnitude, in contrast to other spectroscopic follow-up studies. This sample includes many high-priority Earth-sized candidate planets. A set of model spectra are fitted to optical spectra of 268 stars to improve estimates of T, log(g), and [Fe/H] for the dwarfs in the range  K. These stellar properties are used to find new stellar radii and, in turn, new radius estimates for the candidate planets. The result of improved stellar characteristics is a more accurate representation of this Kepler exoplanet sample and identification of promising candidates for more detailed study. This stellar sample, particularly among stars with T K, includes a greater number of relatively evolved stars with larger radii than assumed by the mission on the basis of multi-color broadband photometry. About 26% of the modelled stars require radii to be revised upwards by a factor of 1.35 or greater, and modelling of 87% of the stars suggest some increase in radius. The sample presented here also exhibits a change in the incidence of planets larger than as a function of metallicity. Once [Fe/H] increases to , large planets suddenly appear in the sample while smaller planets are found orbiting stars with a wider range of metallicity. The modelled stellar spectra, as well as an additional 84 stars of mostly lower effective temperatures, are made available to the community.

planetary systems – planets and satellites: fundamental parameters – stars: fundamental parameters – surveys
slugcomment: in press at ApJ

1 Introduction

The NASA Kepler Mission employs a space-based 0.95 m aperture Schmidt telescope to observe a single 115 square degree field of view and obtain nearly continuous light curve coverage for over 156,000 stars. The satellite was launched in March 2009 and began science observations in May 2009 with a primary mission objective of detecting the transits of small planets orbiting near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars (Borucki et al., 2010).

Once detrended for instrumental signatures and long-term stellar variations, the Kepler light curves are searched for transit signals that are vetted to eliminate likely false positives (transit-like signals due to causes other than transiting planets; see Batalha et al., 2010). The periodicity and amplitude of the transits provide initial estimates for orbital periods and sizes of candidate planets. However, these planet size estimates are derived from modeling the light curves with a parameter reflecting the planet-to-star radius ratio and so depend on the uncertainty of the radius of the host star. Understanding the properties of the host stars, especially stellar radii, is therefore critical to meeting many of the mission objectives. In order to identify the most promising candidates, refine knowledge of the host star properties, and identify additional false positives, a follow-up observing program was undertaken to obtain optical spectra of candidate host stars. The resulting spectra are fitted with models to determine the three stellar properties T, log(g), and [Fe/H]. These parameters are then used to revise the stellar and candidate planet radii. This program is one of several providing ground-based follow-up reconnaissance spectroscopy of candidate exoplanet host stars as part of the Kepler Follow-up Program (Gautier et al., 2010).

The target sample is described in §2, the observational methods in §3, and the data reduction in §4. In §5 model fits are used to determine the stellar properties T, log(g), and [Fe/H] along with an analysis of their uncertainties. These stellar parameters are used in §6 to find fits for each star on sets of isochrones and derive revised stellar and planetary radii. The results are discussed in §7 and presented in a table listing the stellar properties for 220 candidate exoplanet host stars. The public availability of the data are discussed in §8 and the findings from these data are summarized in §9.

2 Target Sample

The target stars are selected from a list of candidate exoplanet host stars known as Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) identified by the mission following a battery of tests that is designed to identify false positives. These tests include a manual inspection of each light curve and analysis of any pixel-level flux and centroid variations during the candidate transits (Batalha et al., 2010). Having passed the initial false positive identification tests unscathed, KOIs can be considered reasonable targets for planet characterization and confirmation as bona-fide planets using ground-based follow-up observations. At this point, the KOI list contains some unidentified false positives with a rate that depends on the system’s properties. Theoretical calculations have been used to predict the rate of false positives due to eclipsing binaries, especially cases where flux of a third star is blended with the eclipsing binary. Morton & Johnson (2011) predicted an overall false positive rate of 5% based on galactic structure models, the expected binary star population and eclipse depths. Later, Morton (2012) pointed out that because the KOI list still contains some candidates with V-shaped light curves, a higher false positive rate might be expected. Fressin et al. (2013) carried out a recent analysis that included simulating eclipsing binaries as background sources or as members of heirarchical triple systems and systems where true planets had their light curves blended with the flux of other stars. Their analysis predicted a higher overall false positive rate of 9.4% with a dependence on the presumed planet radius and galactic latitude. The highest false positive rate of 17.7% was predicted for giant planet candidates. Recent observational studies have also pointed toward a significant false positive rate. Santerne et al. (2012) conducted a radial velocity survey and estimated a 35% false positive rate among short-period giant planet candidates. Colón et al. (2012) used multi-color light curves to find two out of a sample of four short-period small planet KOIs were actually eclipsing binary stars, necessitating a comparably high false positive rate. Stellar classification spectroscopy can identify false positives in cases where stellar properties are found to be incorrect, however other types of observations are typically better suited to identifying individual false positive candidates.

Our spectra were most often the first follow-up observations taken of the faint stars of interest. Up to this point, these stars have normally been characterized based only on modelling of the broadband photometry contained in the Kepler Input Catalog, a ground-based survey of the Kepler field (KIC; Brown et al., 2011). The stellar properties determined in the KIC were designed to select optimal target stars for the mission prior to launch. The ideal target stars were small (ie. dwarfs) for which transits by a given size planet produce relatively large signals. The KIC allowed Kepler to select mostly small stars, but within the sample, stars exhibit a range of properties that are not always accurately determined.

A list of current active KOIs is maintained by the Community Follow-up Program (CFOP555https://cfop.ipac.caltech.edu/) and is continuously updated as the Kepler satellite observations are reduced and vetted for new candidates, or as follow-up observations help to identify some KOIs as false positives. The properties of the KOIs in our sample have likewise changed over the course of the mission. The highest priority targets, and those selected to be included in the sample, generally fall into one or more of the following categories: (1) KOIs that are requested for observation as part of an intensive study of a single star or a small number of host stars, (2) KOI stars that are candidates to be hosts of small planets (), (3) KOIs in which the candidate planets orbit in a predicted habitable zone, and (4) KOI stars that harbor multiple candidate planets.

Because the KOIs are also being pursued by other spectroscopic follow-up programs and we wish to avoid unnecessary overlap, we have also selected targets on the basis of apparent brightness. The target stars span an apparent brightness range , where is the Kepler bandpass magnitude (Brown et al., 2011). Figure 1 shows the magnitude distribution of our target sample along with the current set of KOI stars. It also includes the magnitude distribution of those stars with new stellar radius estimates (see §6). At the bright end of the magnitude range, , the follow-up coverage by other groups is fairly extensive (the Kepler Follow-up Program reported approximately 90% of these stars as having had spectral follow-up through the 2012 observing season). To our knowledge, our spectroscopic sample is by far the largest for candidate host stars of (). Such faint stars may prove too difficult or time consuming for other follow-up methods (e.g., highly precise radial velocity measurements), however they are quite important to the overall mission goals due to their large numbers (ie. two thirds of currently-active KOI stars have and two thirds of planet candidates with radii less than occur around these fainter stars). A full understanding of Kepler exoplanet statistics requires large follow-up studies of the faint stars, or at least those of highest priority. Finally, note that a few otherwise high priority targets are excluded from the observations due to visible crowding by other stars since the modelling described here is not designed for composite spectra.

Figure 2 shows distributions of planet orbital periods and radii for the same data sets, namely our sample and that of all KOIs. The entire KOI sample is dominated by planets smaller than . As Kepler obtains increasingly long time coverage light curves, the relative fractions of small planets and those in long-period orbits grows and the lower right hand regions in the plots of Figure 2, where habitable terrestrial planets may be located, are becoming increasingly well populated. As shown in Figure 2, the observed sample has a similar distribution to the entire KOI sample, but contains relatively fewer stars harboring large planets and relatively more candidates with long-period orbits.

3 Observations

We observed KOIs in the Kepler field (115 square degrees centered at , ) on 48 nights during using the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Mayall 4m telescope on Kitt Peak and the facility RCSpec long-slit spectrograph with one of its pixel CCDs (either T2KA or T2KB). The spectrograph configuration was the same on each observing run. The slit was 1.0 wide by 49 long and oriented with a position angle of 90. The KPC-22b grating in second order was used to disperse the spectra with 0.72 Å pixel at a nominal resolution of Å. The spectra covered a wavelength range between 3640Å and 5120Å, but were out of focus at both ends where the fluxes could not be reliably calibrated. The effective wavelength range was therefore reduced to a Å region. The scale along the slit in each spectrum was 0.69.

The observing procedure was basically the same each night. The telescope autoguider was used during each observation and each pointing began with an exposure of the instrument’s comparison arc lamp spectrum (HeNeAr or FeAr) for wavelength calibrations. Following that, normally a single exposure was taken of each target star. The exposure times ranged between 5 and 20 minutes for most KOIs, although a few required longer integrations due to faintness or poor observing conditions. The faintest targets requiring an exposure time exceeding 20 minutes were observed in two exposures to reduce the density of cosmic ray hits per exposure and aid in their removal during reduction. The KOIs or other stars (e.g., for flux calibrations) were all observed at an airmass of less than . At the high end of this airmass range, the atmospheric dispersion for objects in the Kepler field remained sufficiently parallel to the slit at the latitude of Kitt Peak, and permitted efficient operations at a single instrument rotation. At least one spectrophotometric standard star selected from Massey et al. (1988) or Stone (1977) was observed each night. Calibration data consisting of bias frames, quartz lamp flat field exposures, and comparison lamp exposures were taken during the daytime.

4 Data Reduction

The data reduction is primarily based on various IRAF666IRAF is distributed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. packages for performing image reduction and the onedspec package for extracting and calibrating the spectra. The first step is reducing the sets of bias and quartz flat lamp exposures. The overscan bias level is subtracted from each bias frame and it is trimmed to a useful data section. These bias frames are averaged to create a master. The overscan bias level is subtracted from each flat field frame followed by any (residual) bias pattern in the master bias. The flat frames are then averaged while rejecting cosmic ray hits. We normalize this master flat by fitting a smooth curve to its shape along the dispersion axis (rows) and normalizing each row of the flat by this curve. Object spectra frames are reduced by subtracting the overscan bias, trimming them, and subtracting any residual bias pattern. They are then divided by the normalized flat field.

The onedspec package task doslit is the basis of spectral extraction and calibration using the spectrophotometric standard stars. To reduce the systematic trends that may result from the variation in telescope focus with wavelength across the spectrum (a significant effect with this spectrograph configuration), a relatively wide aperture is defined to extract each spectrum. This is based on a cut through the CCD column at where the stellar profile along the slit is broad and representative of the wavelength region used for much of the spectral modelling. We measure sky flux in regions extracted from both sides of the stellar spectrum, and subtract it. The aperture defined by the stellar spectrum is used to extract a comparison lamp spectrum for each object. A sensitivity function is found for each night based on the ratio of the standard star to its standard curve in the IRAF database of KPNO IRS standards and used to correct the science targets and supply a relative flux level. The comparison lamp spectra are used to determine wavelength as a function of columns in order to resample the spectra to a linear wavelength scale set to closely match the sampling of the 2-D spectra.

5 Stellar Characterization

5.1 Overview of the Stellar Characterization Methodology

We developed specialized software and procedures for this program. These are first used to find the basic stellar properties T, log(g), and [Fe/H], by fitting the observed spectra to theoretical model spectra (§5). Following that, stellar and planetary radii are estimated based on the best fits of the basic stellar properties to Yale-Yonsei isochrones in (§6).

The model-fitting methods employed here rely on comparisons between observed spectra and existing synthetic spectra calculated from stellar atmosphere models and line modelling codes. Model spectra are available from the literature on a grid of discrete values for T, log(g), and [Fe/H]. The process followed here finds the best physical properties for each observed spectrum by evaluating the rms of the residuals between the observed spectrum and each model. Following that, an interpolated value is found for each stellar property by evaluating the goodness-of-fit over the grid of models. Ideally, a best-fitting model spectrum could be identified for each star and the physical properties associated with the model would then be assigned to the star. In practice, the spectral models fail to accurately predict all of the features in the observed spectra and fits often need to be restricted to specific wavelength intervals containing features that are both well represented by the models and sensitive to the parameters being sought (e.g., see Valenti & Fischer, 2005). Furthermore, systematic errors in determining stellar properties can be introduced by errors in the relative spectral flux calibration and the discrete values of the model atmosphere sets. Errors in the stellar parameters can be correlated as well, complicating the situation.

In order to test the methods employed here and refine them to work on KOI stars, we observed a large number of “test stars” that have published stellar properties. Experimentation has shown that the fits can reproduce the relative stellar properties for these stars, but with systematic offsets from their literature values. The final fitting methods adopted are ones that best reproduced the literature values, once corrections for these systematic offsets were made. In essence, we adopted the test stars and their published properties as a standard set and worked to find methods that maximized the fitting precision.

The model fits are confined to a relatively narrow wavelength region at the long wavelength end of the spectra (see § 5.4). This region contains the important H absorption line, which is strong in the hotter stars of our sample. Its strength and profile is dependent on effective temperature and surface gravity. Multiple atomic metal lines are also present, the strongest ones are due to low ionization states of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ti and Mg. For cooler stars, a prominent broad molecular feature appears from MgH (near 4780Å) and eventually from TiO (near 4760Å) at the lowest temperatures. These features, and the range of stellar atmosphere conditions over which they are useful diagnostics, limit the stars that we can model using these procedures. During the fitting, the strength of the metal lines drives our estimate of [Fe/H], while the strength and profile of H is largely responsible for driving the fits of T and log(g). The strength of MgH is not very well represented in the synthetic spectra (Weck et al., 2003) nor does this feature appear to be particularly helpful for fitting the cooler range of our spectra where it appears. The stars that could be fit most effectively and for which we had representative test stars were dwarfs within the effective temperature range (approximate spectral types K2V through F0V) as discussed in §5.5. For this reason, only stellar properties for KOIs within this temperature range are reported here.

5.2 Model Spectra

The fits are based on a set of synthetic model spectra made publicly available by Coelho et al. (2005). These model spectra are calculated using their extensive line calculation codes along with the model stellar atmospheres of Castelli & Kurucz (2003). They represent predictions for non-rotating stars with relative metal abundances set to the solar values of Grevesse & Sauval (1998). The model set includes spectra calculated for stars that lie at discrete points on a 3-D grid defined by the parameters T, log(g), and [Fe/H]. The model spectra are calculated at wavelength steps of 0.02Å and with a range and spacing between adjacent values of each parameter as follows: T between 3500 K and 7000 K in steps of 250 K, log(g) between 1.0 and 5.0 in steps of 0.5, and [Fe/H] between and in steps of 0.5 with an additional set of models at [Fe/H].

5.3 Test Stars

The methods used to fit model spectra to the observations are the result of experiments fitting models to a set of spectra obtained for 44 test stars while attempting to reproduce the physical parameters previously published for these stars. These stars were representative of the majority of the KOIs we planned to target. Physical data taken from the literature for these stars is given in Table 1 along with the model fitting results discussed later. The test stars include a set of 20 exoplanet host stars characterized by the HATnet project (Bakos et al., 2002). The HAT stars are dwarfs ranging in T between 4591 K and 6600 K, log(g) between 4.13 and 4.63, and metallicities between and . Typical uncertainties in their stellar properties are 80 K for T, 0.04 in log(g), and 0.08 for [Fe/H]. The atmospheric parameters of these stars have been estimated by combining spectroscopic fits with light curve modelling. The properties T and [Fe/H] were found using the model atmospheres and line synthesis code provided by the software Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME; Valenti & Piskunov, 1996) and log(g) was found by modelling the transit light curve parameterized by the ratio of the orbital semi-major axis to the stellar radius, , in the manner of Sozzetti et al. (2007). A second set of 6 dwarfs from the work of Valenti & Fischer (2005) was observed. These stars ranged in T between 4969 K and 5903 K, log(g) between 3.97 and 4.85, and [Fe/H] between and based on SME and Kurucz (1992) ATLAS9 atmosphere models. Another set of 4 dwarfs are KOIs that had also been observed by other Kepler follow-up programs using high-resolution spectroscopy (labelled with KOI or Kepler designations). These programs utilized SME along with other constraints. We also observed a number of evolved stars, including a set of 5 giants in the Kepler field for which properties have been derived from astroseismological analysis (Kallinger et al., 2010) with updated results as determined in Kallinger et al. (2012). These stars ranged in T between 4153 K and 4893 K, log(g) between 1.66 and 3.27, and [Fe/H] between and . A set of 8 bright giants from Luck & Heiter (2007) was included. The stellar properties adopted for this work were those Luck & Heiter (2007) derived spectroscopically using Fe i and Fe ii lines. Their spectral line fits were based on MARCS (Gustafsson et al., 2003) atmosphere models and a variant of the MOOG line synthesis code (Sneden, 1973). These stars had properties determined from high-resolution spectroscopy and spanned a T range from 4605 K to 7000 K, a log(g) range from 2.49 to 3.31, and a [Fe/H] range from to . In addition to the giants, a single dwarf from Luck & Heiter (2007) is included.

5.4 Model-Fitting Method

To determine stellar properties for both our test stars and KOI stars, we apply an iterative method of fitting model spectra to our observations, finding one stellar atmosphere parameter at a time, and in many cases holding other parameters at fixed values until the best-fitting set of stellar properties is identified. First we describe the basic procedures common to every fitting iteration, and then follow that with the details of each iteration.

To prepare the model spectra, the model data of Coelho et al. (2005) are re-binned at a wavelength sampling of 0.3Å for calculation speed. Then, for each observed spectrum, the models are resampled onto the wavelength scale of the observed spectra and smoothed using a Gaussian kernel with a FWHM of 1.5Å to match the observed resolution. Next, based on experiment, a specific wavelength interval is chosen for each fitting step. The first procedure during each iteration is to find the cross-correlation function between the observed and model spectra, where the mean fluxes of both spectra have been subtracted. We use the location of the cross-correlation function peak to shift the model spectra to match the observations (correcting for any wavelength calibration errors and, to first order, any Doppler shift). Next, with the mean flux (F) of our observed spectrum normalized (but with no normalization relative to a continuum flux done), we scale the flux of each model spectrum to minimize the rms residuals of the fit. This scaling is done with either one or two free parameters:

(1)

Here, represents the model flux, the parameter A represents a simple scaling factor, and B an additional term that corrects slope differences between the observations and model. During some iterations, B is fixed at zero. The parameter B proved to be useful in our tests and probably removes systematic errors that might otherwise adversely affect the fits.

We apply the aforementioned procedures in the following step-by-step process:

  1. An initial value for [Fe/H] is found by fitting over Å for the full set of models while including B as a free parameter. The value of [Fe/H] for the model having the minimum rms of fitting residuals is taken as an initial estimate.

  2. An initial value of T is found by restricting our fits to models with [Fe/H] equal to that found in step 1. Here, the fit is done over the wavelength interval Å and B is fixed at zero. The value of T for the model having the minimum rms of the fitting residuals is taken as an initial estimate.

  3. The spectrum is refit to find [Fe/H] in the manner of step 1, but this time the model set is restricted to include only those models having T equal to that found in step 2. See Figure 3 (top panel) for an example fit to the spectrum of KOI 2931 where [Fe/H] is determined to be  dex during an application of this step.

  4. The spectrum is refit to find T in the manner of step 2, but this time the model set is restricted to include only those models having [Fe/H] equal to that found by step 3. See Figure 3 (middle panel) for an example fit to the spectrum of KOI 2931 where T is determined to be  K during an application of this step.

  5. The value of log(g) is determined while holding fixed the values of [Fe/H] and T at the values found in steps 3 and 4 respectively. This best-fitting model represents the best gridpoint fit to the observed spectrum. See Figure 3 (bottom panel) for an example fit to find for KOI 2931 during the application of this step.

  6. Finally, an interpolated value for each parameter is found as described below and illustrated in Figure 4 for the case of KOI 2931. First, each parameter is fitted in turn, keeping the values for the two parameters not being fit fixed to match their values in the model found in step 5. The set of models fit is thus a function of a single parameter. The rms values of the fitting residuals for these models are considered as a function of the parameter value. To find a minimum over a continuous distribution of the parameter value, a cubic spline is fit through these data points to locate the minimum. Then a set of points is selected surrounding this minimum and a quadratic function is fit through them. The minimum of the quadratic function is taken to be the interpolated parameter value. In cases where the minimum lies at the edge of the grid of parameter values, no interpolation can be done. The spectra in such cases are noted and their fits are treated with extra caution.

5.5 Calibrations Using Test Star Fits

As mentioned previously, the stellar properties derived from model fits such as those performed here are subject to systematic errors that are difficult to resolve. Instead of finding a fitting method free of such errors (which might not be possible), we have chosen to calibrate these errors based on fits to a set of test star spectra with the previously-published spectral properties described in §5.3. Once the systematic errors are properly calibrated, a post-fitting correction is possible. At the same time, this approach permits an estimate of the uncertainties in the final stellar properties.

The results of the model fits to the 44 test star spectra are given in Table 1. For each star, the previously-published properties are listed with their uncertainties. Following those are the values from the fits to our spectra (not yet corrected for the systematic errors we are attempting to quantify here). The columns under the heading “difference in values” list the value for each parameter from this work minus the previously-published value. To make the comparison, we plot the difference between our measured parameter and those from the other literature as a function of our parameter values. The results are shown in Figures 5, 6, and 7 for [Fe/H], T, and log(g) respectively. In each figure, the error bars represent the uncertainties quoted for the previously-published values. Note that in these figures, only some of the test star data are shown, namely a subset of 24 spectral fits that satisfy one or both of the following restrictions expressed in terms of the interpolated parameter values obtained during step 6 of the model fitting procedure:

(2)
(3)

The values of the parameter limits in equations 2 and 3 are chosen specifically so that after applying the corrections for systematic errors the same limits are expressed using convenient parameter values as discussed below. The reason that 20 of the 44 test star spectra are excluded from the fits is that when all of the data are plotted it became clear that only the stars falling within the restricted ranges in equations 2 and 3 behaved in a manner that would make accurate calibration possible. Furthermore, Equations 2 and 3 are chosen to exclude ranges in stellar properties that some KOIs may have, but which are not represented among our test stars. The parameters measured for stars outside of this range were either less accurate or exhibited large systematic deviations from their literature values. In any case, it is still possible to distinguish how the stars outside of this range differed from those inside the range (e.g., that they were cooler or had lower log(g)values).

All three of Figures 57 show that there are systematic trends in the differences between the parameter values fit here and the previously-published values. Note that there are stars among this set measured using different methods, but all lie along the same linear trends. To quantify these trends, an unbiased linear least squares fit to all of the points is found and shown in the figures. These fits lead to corrective relationships that can be used to place the measured stellar properties on a scale defined by the test stars:

(4)
(5)
(6)

Here, the corrected value of the parameter is labelled parenthetically with “(corr.)” and is expressed as a function of the uncorrected parameter obtained during step 6 of the method described if §5.4. Using equations 46, the range over which the corrections are applicable (ie. the range over which the spectral fits can be calibrated) can now be expressed in terms of the corrected stellar properties:

(7)
(8)

The scatter of points around the linear fits in Figures 57 provides an estimate for the uncertainties in the corrected stellar parameters. The distribution of the points around the linear fits can be described in terms of standard deviations, where  dex for [Fe/H],  K for T, and for log(g). The scatter reflects a combination of the uncertainties from the previous measurements and those presented here. To determine the contribution to the total uncertainty from the latter, one could determine an error on each parameter that, when added in quadrature to the uncertainties in the parameters quoted in the literature, would result in the linear fit having . To do this, the 1-sigma errors on the new parameter values would need to be , , and . Evidently for [Fe/H] and T the uncertainties quoted for the literature values tend to dominate the total uncertainty so that this method could underestimate the uncertainty of the new parameter fits. This may be the result of at least some of the uncertainties quoted in the literature having been overestimated. In contrast, for log(g), the contribution of the new uncertainties to the total error is larger and this method is useful to estimate the uncertainty.

However, since there may be unknown effects that could influence the fits, we have chosen to adopt a more conservative uncertainty on each measurement. The standard deviations of data around the fitted lines probably represents an upper limit to uncertainties within this well-characterized range of stellar properties. With that in mind, we have adopted a uncertainty of 75 K for T, 0.10 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 for log(g). The stellar properties of our modelled stars are given in Table 2 and referenced by KOI number and KIC identification number.

6 Revised Stellar and Planetary Radii

In total, 368 good quality spectra were obtained of 352 stars. From this master sample, 226 spectra for 220 stars had high enough quality, were not now known to harbor false positive planets, and had appropriate stellar atmospheric parameters to allow a new estimate of stellar radius and hence new estimates of exoplanet candidate radii. A total of 368 exoplanet candidates orbit these 220 stars. The Kepler magnitude distribution of these 220 stars is shown in Figure 1.

To begin, the 226 stellar spectra were separated into three [Fe/H] ranges: (), (), and (). Within each [Fe/H] range, measured effective temperature and surface gravity were used to estimate stellar luminosity using the so-called Version 2 Yale-Yonsei (YY) isochrones (Demarque et al., 2004) with solar abundance ratios (i.e. ) and [Fe/H] , , and , respectively, as provided in the on-line version777http://www.astro.yale.edu/demarque/yyiso.html. Stellar luminosity in solar units was estimated for a given (T,log(g)) estimate by determining the median stellar luminosity in the ranges T  K and log(g) . Given the magnitude of the (T,log(g)) uncertainties, it was deemed appropriate to search the on-line YY Version 2 isochrone grid without further interpolation. Stellar radius in solar units was then estimated using the standard relation

(9)

Stellar radii uncertainties can be estimated in two ways. First, within the search box defined by the (T,log(g)) uncertainties, the standard deviation of the mean luminosity can be computed. The radii uncertainty was estimated as follows:

(10)

Second, 6 stars were observed at least twice and sometimes four times on separate nights during different observing runs separated by months. Stellar radius uncertainty can be estimated from the dispersion in stellar radius estimates from these individual observations. From both methods in combination, a conservative uncertainty for of is adopted.

The new stellar radii estimates are provided in Table 2. Only a portion of this long table is presented here. The entire table is made available in the electronic version. For stars observed multiple times, individual radii estimates were averaged into a single value. How do these new estimates compare to the best previous available radii estimates from the Kepler Science Analysis System (KSAS)888The KSAS was a Kepler Mission database storing the best available estimates for stellar and candidate planet properties. Stellar radii were based on KIC photometry for most stars in the magnitude range of interest here.? As Figure 8 illustrates, there is a formal offset towards larger radii estimates. The radii of 87% of these stars are revised upwards (and 13% downwards), although some of these revised radii are insignificant given the uncertainties in the stellar radii. For about 26% (58) of the stars, the revised radii are skewed upwards with . As Figures 8 and 9 illustrate, these stars tend to to be more evolved than the sample as a whole and relative to their properties listed by KSAS. In other words, it appears that many KIC stars are larger than previously assumed. In turn, exoplanet candidates orbiting those stars must be larger by the same relative amount.

Revised exoplanet candidate radii estimates can be derived from the revised stellar radii measurements from the simple geometric approximation:

(11)

where initial stellar and exoplanet radii come from KSAS. Stellar radii use solar units () while exoplanet candidate radii use Earth radius units (). The on-line Table 3 provides the revised exoplanet candidate radii.

Figure 10 compares revised exoplanet candidate radii to the characteristics of their host stars. As previously shown by Buchhave et al. (2012) and discussed in §7, exoplanet candidates with are much more likely to be associated with higher metallicity stars, while smaller exoplanet candidates are found around stars spanning the entire metallicity range of our sample.

7 Discussion

The new stellar characteristics derived from this spectroscopic study have refined the properties of a large sample of KOIs, revealing statistical trends and identifying a number of individual KOIs as excellent targets for more detailed follow-up and potential confirmation as systems harboring small habitable zone planets.

In §6 we found that 26% of the KOI stars had radii significantly larger than their values based on the initial photometric data available to the mission. This effect could be due to systematic errors in the photometrically-derived stellar properties like log(g), selection effects in the magnitude-limited KOI sample, transit detectability dependence on stellar radius, or a combination of factors. In the case of these data, almost all of the stars with radii revised upwards by a factor of 1.35 or greater have T5200 K, and their positions on the log(g)log(T) plot of Figure 8 show that many represent a population of relatively evolved stars compared to the other stars of comparable effective temperature.

The lower log(g) values measured here may be compared to those of Verner et al. (2011) who used asteroseismic methods on the Kepler light curve data to determine radii for 514 solar-type stars in the apparent magnitude range . For stars with log(g) dex and a wide range of effective temperature, the mean asteroseismic log(g) values were 0.23 dex lower than those reported in the KIC. The corresponding stellar radii were larger as well. Another sample of stars with asteroseismic log(g) values was compared to KIC log(g) by Bruntt et al. (2012). They found asteroseismic log(g) values were lower than those in the KIC by an average of 0.05 dex. They attributed the lower mean difference with respect to the KIC to the inclusion of stars with log(g) in the sample, for which asteroseismic log(g) values are in better agreement. Verner et al. (2011) noted that their asteroseismic sample could be skewed by a Malmquist bias, which would preferentially select more evolved and intrinsically brighter stars, as well as by the improved detectability of the higher amplitude oscillations associated with stars of lower log(g). In the case of the spectroscopically analyzed sample presented here, the Malmquist bias would be in effect along with the counteracting bias favoring detectability of transits across smaller stars. These two biases were examined by Gaidos & Mann (2013) who predicted that the Malmquist bias would have the dominant effect, and the transit sample should be relatively overabundant in large stars compared to stars at the same temperature and apparent brightness. In addition to biases in the KOI sample as a whole, this spectroscopic sample was constructed to include many of the (relatively rare) smallest planet candidates for follow-up, a choice that may also select KOI stars with anomalous radii. It is clear that a full understanding of these biases is necessary to get better estimates for planet occurrence rates and that large, spectroscopic samples like the one presented here will play an important role. A similar spectroscopic study of “control” stars, perhaps Kepler stars showing no transits, may be of merit as well.

The revised values for stellar and planet radii have some implications for the mission goal to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets orbiting Sun-like stars in a habitable zone. The radii of some planets must be revised significantly upwards, perhaps pushing them outside the size range likely for rocky Earth-like bodies. An additional effect is that higher luminosities implied by an increase in stellar radius move the habitable zones for these stars outwards from the star. As a consequence, the orbital periods of habitable zone planets must be longer.

Despite the apparent decrease in the number of small planets, these spectra provide additional evidence to favor certain candidates as among the most interesting targets for the goals of the Kepler Mission. An example candidate host star is KOI2931, the star shown in Figures 3 and 4. KOI2931 hosts a single known planet candidate, KOI2931.01, with an orbital period of 99.248 days. With new stellar properties T K, log(g), [Fe/H] and , the planet radius of KOI2931.01 is estimated to be 2.1 . The isochrone fit for this star corresponds to a stellar mass of and a planet equilibrium temperature of 326 K is found assuming an albedo of 0.3 and a circular orbit. KOI2931.01 is one example of a good candidate for a super-Earth orbiting in the habitable zone.

A correlation between the incidence of relatively large planet candidates and relatively high host star metallicity (selecting large planets at ) was previously seen spectroscopically in a smaller sample of brighter KOI stars by Buchhave et al. (2012). The KOI stars in their sample were almost all brighter than , but our and their data sets overlap in apparent brightness.

There are various ways to examine the significance of the apparent deficit of large planet candidates around low metallicity host stars ([Fe/H]) in this sample. First, note that 5 planet candidates in this sample (225.01, 998.01, 1067.01, 1226.01 and 1483.01) are all too large () while the remainder are reasonable sizes for planets (). These 5 objects are considered likely false positives and excluded from further consideration. This results in 46 candidate planets orbiting host stars of [Fe/H] and 317 orbiting host stars of [Fe/H]. A K-S test comparing the planet size distributions of the these two samples reveals a difference with a confidence level of 98%. As a second test, random subsamples of 46 candidate planets are drawn from the sample of 317 candidates orbiting host stars with [Fe/H] and compared to the 46 candidate planets orbiting lower metallicity stars. A set of 1 million random subsamples reveals that the most probable number of large planet candidates () orbiting high metallicity host stars is 8 or 9, and that 2 or fewer large planet candidates occur just 0.4% of the time (2 is the number of large planet candidates orbiting the low metallicity host stars).

A fraction of the candidate planet sample may be false positives and this effect is considered next. Note that 38 known or likely false positives have already been removed from the sample of 352 stars as part of creating the candidate planet sample, but others likely remain. Also, 243 out of 363 planet candidates are members of multi-planet systems and these have a very high likelihood of being true planets rather than eclipsing binary stars (Lissauer et al., 2012). However, multi-planet systems may still be considered false positives in the sense that their planet radii can be underestimated due to host star blending (Fressin et al., 2013). A detailed treatment might be useful to simulate the effects of false positives in the sample, but a simpler approach is taken here. If a liberal reduction is made to the sample size in an effort to simulate the removal of false positives, it will weaken inferences drawn from these data. Fressin et al. (2013) predict false positive rates in five planet size ranges: 17.7% for , 15.9% for , 6.7% for , 8.8% for and 12.3% for . When individual planets are removed from our sample at these rates, the K-S test signficance of the differences in planet size distribution on host star metallicity drops to 96%. The test of selecting random samples of high metallicity stars to match the sample size of the low metallicity stars reveals that 2 or fewer large planet candidates occur around high metallicity stars 1.7% of the time.

The tests show a dependence between host star metallicity and the occurance rate of large transiting planets, much like for the sample of Buchhave et al. (2012). It is not surprising to see a similar pattern in these data, but the fainter stars analyzed here probe a significantly larger volume of space, showing that these effects persist across the different stellar populations. The apparent threshold value of metallicity is chosen at [Fe/H] to match the appearance of the lower left panel in Figure 10, but the discrete and relatively sparse set of model spectra used to determine [Fe/H] may slightly distort this plot. The lines drawn at were also chosen by eye, but could have as well been taken at a somewhat smaller radius (ie. at ). There are no obvious trends in the incidence of planet candidates with with respect to either log(g) or T. Similarly, no dependence was found between metallicity and the number of planets detected around the KOI stars. Given the lack of large planets detected (in short period orbits) around low metallicity host stars, the efficiency of planet migration may be dependent on metallicity, or perhaps large planets simply cannot form around such stars at any orbital distance.

8 Data Availability

The reduced spectra and products from our model fits are made available on the CFOP website. The CFOP website organizes data for each KOI and confirmed Kepler exoplanets, including the products of many follow-up observations. The data products contributed from this spectroscopy program include the reduced spectrum data files, stellar properties, plots of the spectra, fitted synthetic models plotted alongside the observed spectra (similar to Figure 3) and plots similar to Figure 4 showing the interpolation between gridpoint fit values. Additional follow-up spectra and their fits will be added in the future.

9 Summary

A spectroscopic analysis of a large sample of stars known as Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) is presented. In the case of most of these KOIs, the stellar characterization, and by extension candidate planet properties, had been based on broadband photometry available from the pre-launch Kepler Input Catalog survey. Spectral follow-up, like that presented here, proves important to improve the accuracy of the KOI stellar properties, identify interesting individual planet systems and perform accurate statistical studies of the KOI list as a whole. The results of model spectra fits (values for T, log(g), and [Fe/H]) are given for 268 stars. Isochrone fits are used to provide revised radii for 220 KOI stars and their 368 planets. The spectra and results from this survey are made available to the public through the online CFOP archive.

The spectral and isochrone fits reveal that many of the KOI stars have larger radii than previously assumed. About 26% of the stars for which new radii were determined require corrections to their assumed radii of a factor of 1.35 or greater, and the isochrone fits for 87% of the stars suggest some increase in radius. The stars requiring the largest upward adjustment in radius represent a relatively evolved subset of the sample. The increases in stellar radii also require a reevaluation of the radii derived for the planet candidates hosted by these stars. The planet radii need to be scaled upwards by approximately the same ratio as their host stars.

Despite the fact that the revised planet radii are overall larger than previously assumed, there are candidate planets in this sample that are now better vetted and continue to be likely small planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The example of KOI2931 is presented as a good candidate for a super-Earth planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a 4991 K dwarf.

The frequency of large KOI planets in the sample depends on host star metallicity in a manner similar to that found for a sample of brighter KOI stars by Buchhave et al. (2012). The fainter, larger sample of  K dwarf KOIs analyzed in our program shows that these results extend through a larger volume of space and that the occurrence of large planets () depends on a threshold metallicity near [Fe/H]. The large planet candidates are found almost exclusively around stars with metallicity higher than this value. In contrast, small planet candidates are found around stars spanning the full metallicity range examined in this study.

Our work was made possible through the efforts of many others. Among them are those in the Kepler Science Office and science team. At the telescope we always received excellent help from our observing assistants, and help from additional observers Jay Holberg, Ken Mighell, and Jason Rowe. Codes used in our modelling were adopted from work by Greg Doppmann and we received help to compile a list of properties for our test star sample from Lars Buchhave and Thomas Kallinger. We also wish to thank the referee for helpful suggestions that were incorporated into this work. Financial support for the work was provided by the NASA Kepler Mission and Cooperative Agreement AST–0950945 to NOAO. Facilities: Mayall, Kepler

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Figure 1: Number of KOI stars vs. Kepler magnitude. The unfilled histogram represents the entire KOI sample as of September 2012, i.e. this was the parent sample for the project described in this paper. The grey-filled histogram represents the total observed sample (see Table 2). 81% of these stars have . The black-filled histogram represents the sub-sample of observed stars with new radii estimates (also see Table 2).
Figure 2: The distribution of the initial (pre-follow-up) planet radii and orbital periods for the planet candidates hosted by the observed stars (left panel) and for those around all KOI stars known as of September 2012 (right panel). Both samples are dominated by planets smaller than , while the observed sample contains a higher fraction of small candidate planets and those in long-period orbits. See §2 for a discussion.
Figure 3: The observed spectrum of KOI 2931 in normalized flux units (in black) and model atmosphere spectrum (in red) at three steps of our model-fitting process as outlined in § 5. The top panel shows the fit to find [Fe/H] (resulting from step 3 in our process), the middle panel shows the fit to find T K (resulting from step 4 in our process), and the bottom panel shows the fit to find log(g) (resulting from step 5 in our process).
Figure 4: The rms of the fitting residuals (filled circles) for model spectra fits to our observations of KOI 2931 as a function of three stellar parameters and as described in § 5.4. The fits shown are for sets of models that vary in one parameter with the other two parameters fixed at their values for our best-fitting model of T K, log(g), and [Fe/H]. The left panel shows fits as a function of [Fe/H], the middle panel shows fits as a function of T, and the right panel shows fits as a function of log(g). The grey line shows a cubic spline fit to the points. Open diamond symbols indicate three points selected to define our best parameter fit around the minimum rms value. The black lines are quadratic fits through these points whose minima represent our preliminary interpolated stellar parameters of T K, log(g), and [Fe/H]. These values are later corrected for systematic trends as discussed in § 5.5.
Figure 5: A comparison of preliminary interpolated [Fe/H] values found for 24 test stars of main sequence luminosity class to the values previously reported in the literature. The abscissa values are the preliminary interpolated [Fe/H] while the ordinate shows the difference between these values and those from the literature. Error bars represent the uncertainties quoted for the [Fe/H] values in the literature. The straight line shows an unbiased least-squares fit through the points and defines a correction to be made to remove systematic errors in the preliminary [Fe/H] estimates. This correction results in the final adopted [Fe/H] estimates. The scatter around the fit provides an estimate for the [Fe/H] uncertainties. On this plot, open circles represent HAT Project exoplanet host stars, the filled triangle is the relatively hot dwarf from Luck & Heiter (2007), star-shaped symbols are various KOI stars, and the diamonds represent stars from Valenti & Fischer (2005).
Figure 6: A comparison of preliminary interpolated T values found for 24 test stars of main sequence luminosity class to the values previously reported in the literature. The abscissa values are the preliminary interpolated T while the ordinate shows the difference between these values and those from the literature. Error bars represent the uncertainties quoted for the T values in the literature. The straight line shows an unbiased least-squares fit through the points and defines a correction to be made to remove systematic errors in the preliminary T estimates. This correction results in the final adopted T estimates. The scatter around the fit provides an estimate for the T uncertainties. See Figure 5 for an explanation of the plotting symbols.
Figure 7: A comparison of preliminary interpolated log(g) values found for 24 test stars of main sequence luminosity class to the values previously reported in the literature. The abscissa values are the preliminary interpolated log(g) while the ordinate shows the difference between these values and those from the literature. Error bars represent the uncertainties quoted for the log(g) values in the literature. The straight line shows an unbiased least-squares fit through the points and defines a correction to be made to remove systematic errors in the preliminary log(g) estimates. This correction results in the final adopted log(g) estimates. The scatter around the fit provides an estimate for the log(g) uncertainties. See Figure 5 for an explanation of the plotting symbols.
Figure 8: Left panel: The 220 stars (large black and blue circles) with new radii measurements compared to solar metallicity Version 2 Yale-Yonsei isochrones. Metal-poor and metal-rich isochrones were used to estimate stellar radii but are not shown here. Stars with blue points have revised radii times their KSAS radii. Right panel: Distribution of / , where stars with revised radii times their KSAS radii are indicated by solid blue bins. Clearly, stars with larger revised radii tend to be more evolved than previously assumed. (The data used to create this figure are available in the online journal.)
Figure 9: From left-to-right, the distribution of 220 stars as a function of log(g), [Fe/H], and T. The solid blue inserts indicate the sub-sample with revised radii times their KSAS radii. Again, this subsample tends have lower surface gravity and higher temperature than the full sample. There is no obvious difference in the [Fe/H] distribution of these two samples. (The data used to create this figure are available in the online journal.)
Figure 10: The top panels and the lower left panel compare revised exoplanet candidate radii (units: ) to host star characteristics. In all three panels, solid symbols correspond to exoplanet candidates associated with host stars with while open symbols correspond to stars with higher metallicity. Radii distributions for exoplanets orbiting lower metallicity stars () (solid histogram) and solar or greater metallicities (open histogram) are compared in the lower right panel. Exoplanet candidates with are found at all temperatures and luminosities but are preferentially associated with stars of higher metallicity, in agreement with conclusions of Buchhave et al. (2012). (The data used to create this figure are available in the online journal.)
Stellar properties from the literature Values from this work Difference in values
ID err log(g) err [Fe/H] err log(g) [Fe/H] reference
BD+05 3640 5104 44 4.85 0.06 -1.14 0.03 5079 4.01 -1.34 -25 -0.842 -0.196 Valenti & Fischer (2005)
HAT-P-2aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 6290 110 4.21 0.09 0.12 0.08 6274 3.77 0.04 -16 -0.440 -0.080 Bakos et al. (2007)
HAT-P-3aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5185 46 4.58 0.04 0.27 0.04 5072 3.95 0.49 -113 -0.630 0.220 Torres et al. (2007)
HAT-P-4aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5860 80 4.14 0.04 0.24 0.08 5787 3.42 0.25 -73 -0.720 0.010 Kovacs et al. (2007)
HAT-P-6aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 6570 80 4.22 0.03 -0.13 0.08 6487 3.97 -0.30 -83 -0.250 -0.170 Noyes et al. (2008)
HAT-P-8aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 6200 80 4.15 0.03 0.01 0.08 6073 3.25 -0.10 -127 -0.900 -0.110 Latham et al. (2009)
HAT-P-10aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 4980 60 4.56 0.02 0.13 0.08 4954 4.58 0.17 -26 0.020 0.040 Bakos et al. (2009a)
HAT-P-12 4591 60 4.61 0.01 -0.36 0.04 4391 4.21 -0.36 -200 -0.400 0.000 Hartman et al. (2009)
HAT-P-13aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5653 90 4.13 0.04 0.41 0.08 5639 4.15 0.50 -14 0.020 0.090 Bakos et al. (2009b)
HAT-P-14aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 6600 90 4.25 0.03 0.11 0.08 6432 4.51 -0.16 -168 0.260 -0.270 Torres et al. (2010)
HAT-P-16aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 6158 80 4.34 0.03 0.17 0.08 6005 3.88 0.16 -153 -0.460 -0.010 Buchhave et al. (2010)
HAT-P-18aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 4803 80 4.57 0.04 0.10 0.08 4857 4.72 -0.05 54 0.150 -0.150 Hartman et al. (2011a)
HAT-P-19aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 4990 130 4.54 0.05 0.23 0.08 5010 4.47 0.40 20 -0.070 0.170 Hartman et al. (2011a)
HAT-P-20 4595 80 4.63 0.02 0.35 0.08 4315 3.71 -0.02 -280 -0.920 -0.370 Bakos et al. (2011)
HAT-P-21aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5588 80 4.33 0.06 0.01 0.08 5544 3.86 0.10 -44 -0.470 0.090 Bakos et al. (2011)
HAT-P-22aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5302 80 4.36 0.04 0.24 0.08 5284 3.96 0.45 -18 -0.400 0.210 Bakos et al. (2011)
HAT-P-25aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5500 80 4.48 0.04 0.31 0.08 5478 4.08 0.50 -22 -0.400 0.190 Quinn et al. (2012)
HAT-P-26aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5079 88 4.56 0.06 -0.04 0.08 5029 4.25 0.06 -50 -0.310 0.100 Hartman et al. (2011b)
HAT-P-27aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5300 90 4.51 0.04 0.29 0.10 5314 4.25 0.50 14 -0.260 0.210 Béky et al. (2011)
HAT-P-28aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5680 90 4.36 0.06 0.12 0.08 5586 3.83 0.25 -94 -0.530 0.130 Buchhave et al. (2011)
HAT-P-29aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 6087 88 4.34 0.06 0.21 0.08 5943 4.09 0.31 -144 -0.250 0.100 Buchhave et al. (2011)
HD3411 4657 100 2.59 0.10 0.31 0.17 4867 2.33 0.22 210 -0.260 -0.090 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD7578 4715 100 2.64 0.10 0.24 0.17 4914 3.14 0.50 199 0.500 0.260 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD8599 4957 100 3.11 0.10 -0.18 0.17 5022 2.66 0.06 65 -0.450 0.240 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD23596aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5903 44 3.97 0.06 0.22 0.03 5783 3.49 0.26 -120 -0.480 0.040 Valenti & Fischer (2005)
HD172310aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5414 44 4.60 0.06 -0.42 0.03 5417 4.72 -0.58 3 0.120 -0.160 Valenti & Fischer (2005)
HD199442 4605 100 2.49 0.10 0.19 0.17 4777 2.34 0.17 172 -0.150 -0.020 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD201891 5688 44 4.39 0.06 -1.12 0.03 5760 3.08 -1.13 72 -1.310 -0.010 Valenti & Fischer (2005)
HD204642 4733 100 2.90 0.10 0.08 0.17 4966 3.31 0.30 233 0.410 0.220 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD210752 5835 44 4.37 0.06 -0.64 0.03 5761 3.36 -0.68 -74 -1.010 -0.040 Valenti & Fischer (2005)
HD211607 4992 100 3.17 0.10 0.13 0.17 5039 3.14 0.19 47 -0.030 0.060 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD213619aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 7000 100 4.29 0.10 0.04 0.17 6750 4.10 -0.61 -250 -0.190 -0.650 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD216259 4969 44 4.81 0.06 -0.63 0.03 4793 4.16 -0.93 -176 -0.650 -0.300 Valenti & Fischer (2005)
HD219615 5003 100 2.83 0.10 -0.52 0.17 4923 1.99 -0.58 -80 -0.840 -0.060 Luck & Heiter (2007)
HD223869 4957 100 3.31 0.10 -0.02 0.17 5005 3.25 0.16 48 -0.060 0.180 Luck & Heiter (2007)
Kepler-9aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5777 61 4.49 0.09 0.12 0.04 5763 4.00 -0.07 -14 -0.490 -0.190 Holman et al. (2010)
Kepler-16 4450 150 4.65 0.00 -0.30 0.20 4062 3.45 -0.55 -388 -1.200 -0.250 Doyle et al. (2011)
Kepler-21aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 6131 44 4.00 0.10 -0.15 0.06 5928 3.25 -0.20 -203 -0.750 -0.050 Howell et al. (2012)
KOI245aaStar is one of 24 used to calibrate the model fits (see §5.5) 5369 44 4.57 0.01 -0.34 0.04 5241 4.33 -0.55 -128 -0.240 -0.210 Barclay et al. (2012)
KIC1432587 4165 65 1.66 0.01 -0.02 0.18 4709 2.32 -0.18 544 0.660 -0.160 Kallinger et al. (2012)
KIC10777816 4893 64 3.27 0.00 -0.22 0.18 5020 2.86 -0.10 127 -0.410 0.120 Kallinger et al. (2012)
KIC12306763 4153 71 1.83 0.01 -0.23 0.18 4729 2.32 0.22 576 0.490 0.450 Kallinger et al. (2012)
KIC12470054 4830 79 3.15 0.00 -0.29 0.18 4961 3.24 0.36 131 0.090 0.650 Kallinger et al. (2012)
KIC12506577 4418 74 2.20 0.01 0.18 0.18 4735 2.22 -0.48 317 0.020 -0.660 Kallinger et al. (2012)
Table 1: Test star spectral fits
KOI Kepler ID 22Uncertainty in log(g) is 33Uncertainty in [Fe/H] is R44Uncertainty in R is  R notes
(mag.) (K) (cgs) (R)
13 9941662 9.958 b
13 9941662 9.958 b
14 7684873 10.470 bg
14 7684873 10.470 bg
70 6850504 12.498 5562 4.32 0.12 1.13
74 6889235 10.960 bg
115 9579641 12.791 6065 4.43 -0.10 1.08
136 7601633 13.439 6035 4.36 0.01 g
136 7601633 13.439 6001 4.37 0.11 g
149 3835670 13.397 5622 4.06 0.00 1.49
161 5084942 13.341 4975 4.48 0.16 0.84
183 9651668 14.290 5664 4.28 0.00 1.14
184 7972785 14.933 6344 4.39 0.08 g
184 7972785 14.933 6121 4.12 -0.03 g
187 7023960 14.857 5786 4.40 0.30 1.11 f
191 5972334 14.991 5576 4.54 0.10 0.90
196 9410930 14.465 5749 4.38 0.30 1.18 f
197 2987027 14.018 5020 4.50 0.01 0.84
199 10019708 14.879 5932 4.05 0.13 g
201 6849046 14.014 5504 4.41 0.30 1.03 f
209 10723750 14.274 6185 4.26 -0.04 1.36
209 10723750 14.274 6316 4.65 0.09 1.36 f
211 10656508 14.989 5822 4.25 -0.00 1.26
216 6152974 14.711 5056 4.40 0.12 0.90
222 4249725 14.735 4750 4.47 -0.19
223 4545187 14.708 e
224 5547480 14.782 5742 4.26 0.01 g
225 5801571 14.784 6362 4.36 -0.00 1.26
232 4833421 14.247 6058 4.34 -0.06 1.15
232 4833421 14.247 6062 4.48 -0.00 1.15
238 7219825 14.061 6095 4.17 -0.04 1.49
245 8478994 9.705 5359 4.38 -0.19 0.97
251 10489206 14.752 a
260 8292840 10.500 6161 4.05 -0.18 1.53
265 12024120 11.994 5915 4.07 0.06 1.64
269 7670943 10.927 6162 4.04 -0.03 1.98
271 9451706 11.485 5919 4.12 0.13 g
273 3102384 11.457 5586 4.35 0.20 1.05
286 8258171 11.641 bg
286 8258171 11.641 bg
326 9880467 12.960 d
350 11395587 13.387 5656 4.29 0.01 1.14
353 11566064 13.374 6382 4.08 -0.04 1.77
355 11621223 13.174 5930 4.08 0.13 1.56
360 12107021 13.021 c
361 12404954 13.100 5562 4.39 0.08 1.03
364 7296438 10.087 5798 4.15 0.30 fg
368 6603043 11.375 b
372 6471021 12.391 5735 4.36 -0.01 1.13
372 6471021 12.391 5753 4.36 0.07 1.13
377 3323887 13.803 5830 4.31 0.00 1.09
377 3323887 13.803 5932 4.43 0.08 1.09
383 3342463 13.109 5994 4.30 -0.02 g
384 3353050 13.281 6105 4.15 0.02 1.49
387 3733628 13.577 a
389 3847708 13.936 5222 4.38 0.30 fg
391 3858804 13.778 5174 4.27 0.07 g
397 4376644 13.767 6095 4.36 -0.04 g
398 9946525 15.342 5225 4.53 0.24 0.87 f
406 5035972 14.385 6072 4.53 0.30 fg
406 5035972 14.385 5803 4.19 0.20 g
406 5035972 14.385 5824 4.27 0.15 g
433 10937029 14.924 5096 4.30 0.09
448 5640085 14.902 af
456 7269974 14.619 5538 4.33 0.18 1.04
471 10019643 14.415 5389 4.31 0.07 1.11
474 10460984 14.282 5812 4.27 -0.02 1.27
495 4049108 14.873 dg
497 4757437 14.606 5946 4.31 0.12 1.29
498 4833135 14.660 6157 4.34 -0.20 g
501 4951877 14.612 5772 4.33 0.08 1.09
504 5461440 14.560 e
508 6266741 14.387 5540 4.39 0.30 1.01 f
509 6381846 14.883 5454 4.45 0.16 0.98
518 8017703 14.287 a
520 8037145 14.550 4963 4.43 0.08 g
523 8806123 15.000 5766 4.43 -0.03 0.98
528 9941859 14.598 5377 4.29 -0.00 1.08
530 10266615 14.909 d
536 10965008 14.499 5458 4.26 0.15 1.14
536 10965008 14.499 5555 4.32 0.16 1.14
537 11073351 14.665 5832 4.36 0.12 1.14
543 11823054 14.707 5037 4.32 -0.05
548 12600735 14.020 6011 4.35 -0.06 1.15
551 4270253 14.943 5577 4.26 0.09 1.17
555 5709725 14.759 5199 4.42 0.12 0.92
555 5709725 14.759 5242 4.44 0.10 0.92
561 6665695 14.005 4996 4.27 -0.03
563 6707833 14.519 5770 4.18 0.00 1.35
564 6786037 14.854 5754 4.26 0.27 1.32 f
568 7595157 14.140 5294 4.32 0.01 1.09
569 8008206 14.458 4982 4.54 -0.13 0.71
571 8120608 14.625 a
572 8193178 14.173 5854 4.06 -0.04
573 8344004 14.674 5621 4.35 0.07 1.08
574 8355239 14.859 4956 4.43 -0.03 0.86
582 9020160 14.808 5101 4.47 0.09 g
583 9076513 14.573 5570 4.18 0.17 1.41
589 9763754 14.547 5863 4.48 -0.07 1.03
590 9782691 14.615 5880 4.15 -0.02 1.59
591 9886221 14.396 5497 4.23 0.19 g
594 10216045 14.736 5268 4.51 -0.10 g
597 10600261 14.915 5564 4.12 -0.03 1.46
622 12417486 14.932 d
636 5090690 13.252 6606 4.68 -0.11 fg
644 5356593 13.725 5731 4.29 -0.03 g
649 5613330 13.310 6036 4.14 0.12 1.59
650 5786676 13.594 5054 4.47 0.02 0.90
671 7040629 13.749 6040 4.33 0.03 1.19
680 7529266 13.643 6116 4.14 0.07 1.48
681 7598128 13.204 6117 4.03 0.01 g
692 8557374 13.648 5541 4.30 0.14 1.10
693 8738735 13.949 c
694 8802165 13.939 5578 4.35 0.13 1.10
709 9578686 13.940 5330 4.39 -0.18 0.89
710 9590976 13.294 c
711 9597345 13.967 5501 4.39 0.30 1.05 f
712 9640976 13.720 5501 4.55 0.02 g
717 9873254 13.387 5522 4.27 0.26 1.26 f
730 10227020 15.344 5812 4.27 0.15 1.27
733 10271806 15.644 5100 4.46 -0.03 0.86
736 10340423 15.962 a
738 10358759 15.282 5497 4.58 -0.23 0.82
749 10601284 15.416 5187 4.38 0.10 1.00
752 10797460 15.347 5457 4.47 0.12 0.89
757 10910878 15.841 5025 4.46 0.11 0.89
767 11414511 15.052 5530 4.45 0.20 0.93
780 11918099 15.334 5007 4.60 0.10 0.75
787 12366084 15.367 5718 4.43 0.30 1.05 f
794 2713049 15.026 5523 4.35 -0.04 1.07
801 3351888 15.001 5541 4.32 0.30 1.24 f
806 3832474 15.403 5285 4.34 0.11 0.98
812 4139816 15.954 a
824 5164255 16.422 4976 4.36 0.04
825 5252423 15.289 a
829 5358241 15.386 5779 4.40 0.03 1.09
837 5531576 15.660 4754 4.39 0.20
840 5651104 15.028 5236 4.56 0.19 g
841 5792202 15.855 5036 4.23 0.06
842 5794379 15.389 a
844 6022556 15.581 5726 4.46 -0.01 0.99
847 6191521 15.201 5511 4.22 0.20 1.22
860 6680177 15.245 d
861 6685526 15.001 5262 4.67 -0.12 0.72 f
864 6849310 15.604 5524 4.48 0.09 g
865 6862328 15.085 5456 4.34 0.07 g
865 6862328 15.085 5551 4.47 0.00 g
873 7118364 15.024 5756 4.34 0.13 1.15
874 7134976 15.024 4978 4.47 0.17 0.84
877 7287995 15.019 a
881 7373451 15.859 5011 4.46 0.06 0.85
885 7436215 15.161 5045 4.22 0.13
896 7825899 15.258 5327 4.55 0.15 0.84
897 7849854 15.257 5851 4.39 0.14 1.10
905 8180063 15.289 5874 4.30 0.01 g
906 8226994 15.460 5028 4.50 0.00 0.80
912 8505670 15.058 a
918 8672910 15.011 5231 4.46 0.17 0.91
934 9334289 15.843 5558 4.36 -0.03 1.07
935 9347899 15.237 6106 4.13 0.02 1.58
938 9415172 15.596 5331 4.32 0.30 1.10 f
939 9466668 15.065 5540 4.46 0.18 0.92
943 9513865 15.733 5046 4.35 0.19 0.96
945 9605514 15.083 c
947 9710326 15.190 a
962 8846163 14.005 a
974 9414417 9.582 c
994 1431122 14.613 5294 4.32 0.23 1.17 f
998 1432214 15.661 5804 4.15 0.11 1.53
1015 8158127 14.500 5898 4.00 -0.02 1.70
1032 2162635 13.862 5008 4.18 0.14
1052 5956342 15.381 5930 4.27 -0.01 1.19
1053 5956656 15.376 5552 4.32 0.23 1.10 f
1059 6060203 14.803 5365 4.37 0.08 1.01
1067 8246781 14.685 6031 4.24 -0.11 1.18
1069 8222813 15.070 5075 4.42 0.19 0.87
1085 10118816 15.233 a
1089 3247268 14.696 5743 4.34 0.11 1.11
1096 3230491 14.709 5520 4.69 -0.11 f
1099 2853093 15.435 5779 4.29 0.20 1.18
1102 3231341 14.925 5897 4.05 -0.04 1.70
1106 3240158 14.818 6046 4.36 0.00 1.11
1152 10287248 13.987 ag
1161 10426656 14.678 5330 4.36 -0.00 1.02
1163 10468940 14.968 5354 4.38 -0.06 1.05
1164 10341831 14.960 ag
1174 10287723 13.447 a
1198 3447722 15.319 6125 4.15 0.06 1.48
1203 3962243 15.368 5781 4.47 -0.22 0.95
1208 3962440 13.594 6404 4.35 -0.03
1210 3962357 14.377 6136 4.17 0.10
1219 3440861 14.463 4945 4.46 0.10 0.83
1226 6621116 15.324 5304 4.21 0.30 1.22 f
1239 6607286 15.005 5639 4.24 -0.04 1.20
1240 6690082 14.466 5535 4.34 0.14 1.06
1261 8678594 15.120 5587 4.04 -0.01 1.55
1268 8813698 14.814 5804 4.23 -0.05 1.27
1276 8804283 14.766 5435 4.44 0.08 0.99
1276 8804283 14.766 5478 4.36 0.26 0.99 f
1278 8609450 15.204 5857 4.47 -0.09 1.01
1288 10790387 15.128 c
1301 10538176 15.824 5294 4.49 -0.09 0.90
1305 10730034 15.173 5108 4.37 0.03 0.94
1306 10858691 15.587 5812 4.45 -0.05 1.02
1307 10973814 14.775 5514 4.34 0.15 1.02
1312 10963242 14.706 6111 4.29 0.08 1.29
1337 4243911 14.829 5194 4.57 0.29 0.87 f
1355 7211141 15.897 5673 4.12 0.11 1.52
1360 7102227 15.596 a
1364 6962977 15.956 5269 4.43 0.11 0.90
1367 6934291 15.055 5070 4.48 -0.00 0.85
1376 6774826 13.997 b
1396 9455556 15.843 5626 4.60 0.13
1407 9007866 15.755 5270 4.35 0.06 1.03
1408 9150827 14.688 a
1423 11177707 15.740 5023 4.18 0.12
1425 11254382 15.269 5630 4.28 0.12 1.21
1429 11030711 15.531 5644 4.46 0.30 1.01 f
1432 11014932 15.017 5525 4.35 0.07 1.01
1434 11493431 14.782 4787 4.45 0.19
1439 11027624 12.849 5913 4.06 0.11 1.64
1472 7761545 15.061 5582 4.48 0.14 0.93
1475 4770365 15.937 a
1480 7512982 15.887 4859 4.29 -0.15
1483 11909686 14.305 5850 4.26 0.29 1.30 f
1503 12400538 14.827 5628 4.19 0.13 1.21
1503 12400538 14.827 5531 4.27 0.13 1.21
1515 7871954 14.390 a
1527 7768451 14.879 5358 4.28 0.08 1.14
1557 5371776 14.840 a
1564 5184584 15.287 c
1567 5438099 15.565 4960 4.47 -0.03 0.84
1574 10028792 14.600 5641 4.09 0.11 1.59
1582 4918309 15.402 5381 4.17 -0.02 1.36
1588 5617854 14.699 a
1589 5301750 14.764 5866 4.13 -0.05 1.43
1590 5542466 15.674 4906 4.47 -0.05 0.81
1596 10027323 15.157 a
1601 5438757 14.659 5535 4.34 -0.01 1.06
1611 12644769 11.762 a
1613 6268648 11.049 c
1614 10514429 11.413 5792 4.19 -0.05 1.33
1627 6543893 15.767 6070 4.04 -0.24 1.64
1636 10621666 14.598 5858 4.35 -0.10 g
1641 10879038 14.971 5776 4.50 0.12 0.97
1646 11046025 14.293 a
1647 11153121 14.167 5687 4.29 0.19 1.17
1649 11337141 14.963 a
1688 6310636 14.542 5846 4.07 0.13 1.51
1720 10015937 15.742 5246 4.54 -0.18 0.75
1739 7199906 15.129 5592 4.10 0.08 1.51
1750 6209677 14.800 5450 4.48 0.17 0.89
1820 8277797 13.530 5402 4.45 0.10 0.90
1849 9735426 14.624 5271 4.49 0.11 0.89
1858 8160953 14.767 5395 4.33 -0.02 1.06
1860 4157325 14.028 5666 4.27 0.11 1.14
1866 9520838 14.986 5462 4.32 0.09 1.09
1867 8167996 15.018 a
1874 8978528 15.434 a
1882 6205228 14.668 5711 4.27 0.14 1.26
1891 8680979 15.261 4879 4.47 0.15 0.81
1895 4263293 15.862 a
1900 9353314 14.744 a
1902 5809954 14.645 a
1908 5706966 14.731 a
1922 9411166 15.356 5739 4.33 0.11 1.20
1931 10978763 14.531 5348 4.32 0.01 1.10
1934 4242147 14.649 a
1940 10005788 15.389 a
1945 11656918 14.520 5098 4.21 0.15
1952 7747425 14.601 5617 4.33 0.03 1.17
1974 7289577 14.937 5363 4.36 0.07 1.00
1992 11450414 14.513 5589 4.12 -0.02 1.40
2006 10525027 14.220 a
2022 8564674 14.746 5744 4.49 0.14 0.96
2025 4636578 13.781 c
2031 5940165 14.796 a
2038 8950568 14.779 5375 4.22 0.11 1.24
2044 9656252 15.818 5788 4.47 0.30 1.04 f
2051 7265298 15.087 5740 4.38 -0.01 1.11
2057 9573685 15.026 a
2066 3239671 14.904 5494 4.30 -0.04 1.17
2073 8164257 15.565 4944 4.40 0.09
2083 7097965 13.516 5875 4.21 0.24 1.35 f
2087 6922710 11.863 5902 4.22 0.08 1.37
2095 7918992 14.691 5805 4.40 0.06 1.11
2103 7620413 14.736 5579 4.39 0.08 0.98
2111 8612275 14.866 5467 4.49 0.11 0.93
2114 6921944 15.180 a
2115 9532052 16.144 5065 4.32 0.02
2116 8164012 14.690 5909 4.05 -0.00 1.69
2121 9415108 14.979 5362 4.33 0.08 1.01
2132 9661979 14.552 c
2147 10404582 14.500 5758 4.43 0.06 1.01
2160 5546761 14.874 5792 4.26 -0.05 1.18
2164 7204981 15.162 5361 4.40 0.00 0.93
2168 11308499 14.842 5857 4.34 -0.03 1.18
2171 11410904 14.972 5772 4.51 0.17 0.97
2177 10965588 15.481 5041 4.41 0.02 0.89
2200 10909127 15.353 5438 4.69 -0.10 f
2209 8168187 14.310 c
2210 4142847 15.195 4895 4.59 -0.08 0.71
2215 7050060 12.999 6063 4.27 0.03 1.36
2218 12058204 14.514 5589 4.33 0.14 1.05
2220 6871071 14.686 5638 4.09 0.12 1.59
2224 8892157 14.966 5710 4.49 0.08 0.94
2238 8229458 14.634 a
2247 7802719 14.374 a
2248 11030475 15.498 5107 4.31 0.02
2261 3734418 14.110 5064 4.35 0.08 0.95
2282 6751874 14.207 5867 4.15 -0.06 1.46
2286 8973129 15.056 5466 4.43 -0.12 0.87
2294 6934986 14.895 5585 4.18 0.30 1.41 f
2296 11498128 14.552 5534 4.25 -0.00 1.21
2307 7661065 14.854 5292 4.52 0.07 0.83
2310 11718144 14.640 5477 4.52 0.07 0.88
2317 10684670 14.285 5559 4.38 0.30 1.07 f
2318 11495458 14.471 a
2319 9003401 13.355 6059 4.28 0.07 1.30
2320 10481045 15.047 5758 4.69 -0.07 fg
2347 8235924 14.934 a
2373 10798331 14.685 5566 4.27 0.18 1.18
2383 9395024 15.133 5654 4.28 0.08 1.25
2392 7382313 14.985 5574 4.44 -0.06 0.93
2393 4665571 14.903 4815 4.45 -0.06
2399 11461433 14.100 5073 4.32 -0.00
2401 10336951 14.847 a
2407 12120484 14.150 5935 4.26 0.18 1.35
2410 8676038 15.141 5615 4.51 -0.11 0.90
2413 3234598 15.070 a
2417 9654468 16.220 a
2420 7107802 14.746 5559 4.29 0.11 1.14
2421 8838950 14.363 d
2430 3533469 14.338 5405 4.43 0.02 0.99
2433 11968463 15.212 c
2437 5036705 14.725 6150 4.21 0.10 1.38
2459 8572936 14.875 5805 4.44 -0.10 1.02
2460 11236244 15.006 a
2466 8544992 14.993 a
2469 6149910 15.048 a
2509 9880190 15.035 5001 4.39 0.02 0.92
2517 8947520 14.511 5589 4.59 -0.09
2521 7183745 15.860 4999 4.49 -0.18 0.77
2535 9635606 14.985 4814 4.34 0.02
2543 12469800 15.351 4945 4.48 -0.02 0.80
2548 9580167 14.992 a
2552 8757824 14.460 6081 4.30 -0.01 1.21
2554 10471621 15.439 a
2571 6867588 14.434 5215 4.55 0.19 0.82
2597 12120307 14.790 c
2600 9777251 15.053 5497 4.36 0.16 g
2601 7531677 13.915 5865 4.20 0.00 1.32
2624 8429314 15.174 5798 4.33 0.01 1.12
2627 6124512 14.667 d
2628 10070468 14.812 5824 4.19 -0.08 1.32
2637 9574179 15.016 5694 4.29 0.01 1.22
2658 8547429 14.406 5794 4.38 0.22 1.11
2662 3426367 14.488 a
2691 4552729 14.981 a
2730 8415200 13.836 5582 4.20 0.03 1.25
2762 8210018 15.028 a
2770 10917043 15.558 a
2820 11963206 15.273 5707 4.69 -0.08 f
2869 7767162 13.749 6334 4.22 0.15 1.36
2920 7090524 14.455 5513 4.26 0.24 1.32 f
2931 8611257 14.699 4991 4.49 -0.03 0.85
3255 8183288 14.352 a
3259 2853029 15.679 5314 4.47 -0.05 0.88

Note. – Values in the notes column flag the following conditions: (a) ; (b) ; (c) and ; (d) and ; (e) ; (f) model fit reached a parameters limit (g) Now known to be a false positive.

Table 2: Stellar properties determined for KOIs
Planet ID Parent star log()
(KIC ID) (K) (cgs) () (R)
K00070.01 6850504 3.745 4.32 0.12 1.13 1.21 3.74
K00070.02 6850504 3.745 4.32 0.12 1.13 1.21 2.32
K00070.03 6850504 3.745 4.32 0.12 1.13 1.21 3.35
K00070.04 6850504 3.745 4.32 0.12 1.13 1.21 1.10
K00070.05 6850504 3.745 4.32 0.12 1.13 1.21 1.24
K00115.01 9579641 3.783 4.43 -0.10 1.08 0.81 2.71
K00115.02 9579641 3.783 4.43 -0.10 1.08 0.81 1.53
K00115.03 9579641 3.783 4.43 -0.10 1.08 0.81 0.51
K00149.01 3835670 3.750 4.06 0.00 1.49 0.83 4.57
K00161.01 5084942 3.697 4.48 0.16 0.84 1.05 2.82
K00183.01 9651668 3.753 4.28 0.00 1.14 1.31 15.20
K00187.01 7023960 3.762 4.40 0.30 1.11 1.17 17.16
K00191.01 5972334 3.746 4.54 0.10 0.90 1.06 11.32
K00191.02 5972334 3.746 4.54 0.10 0.90 1.06 2.38
K00191.03 5972334 3.746 4.54 0.10 0.90 1.06 1.27
K00191.04 5972334 3.746 4.54 0.10 0.90 1.06 2.36
K00196.01 9410930 3.760 4.38 0.30 1.18 1.26 12.44
K00197.01 2987027 3.701 4.50 0.01 0.84 1.07 8.36
K00201.01 6849046 3.741 4.41 0.30 1.03 0.88 8.76
K00209.01 10723750 3.791 4.26 -0.04 1.36 1.27 10.51
K00209.02 10723750 3.791 4.26 -0.04 1.36 1.27 6.89
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K02083.01 7097965 3.769 4.21 0.24 1.35 1.20 2.32
K02087.01 6922710 3.771 4.22 0.08 1.37 1.11 1.71
K02095.01 7918992 3.764 4.40 0.06 1.11 1.57 1.45
K02103.01 7620413 3.747 4.39 0.08 0.98 1.10 1.32
K02107.01 9225395 3.728 4.47 -0.12 0.82 1.08 2.18
K02111.01 8612275 3.738 4.49 0.11 0.93 0.94 1.57
K02111.02 8612275 3.738 4.49 0.11 0.93 0.94 2.30
K02116.01 8164012 3.772 4.05 -0.00 1.69 1.94 2.42
K02121.01 9415108 3.729 4.33 0.08 1.01 1.34 1.74
K02147.01 10404582 3.760 4.43 0.06 1.01 1.49 2.45
K02160.01 5546761 3.763 4.26 -0.05 1.18 1.55 2.40
K02164.01 7204981 3.729 4.40 0.00 0.93 1.30 1.53
K02168.01 11308499 3.768 4.34 -0.03 1.18 1.24 1.60
K02168.02 11308499 3.768 4.34 -0.03 1.18 1.24 1.99
K02171.01 11410904 3.761 4.51 0.17 0.97 1.11 1.49
K02177.01 10965588 3.703 4.41 0.02 0.89 1.35 2.57
K02210.01 4142847 3.690 4.59 -0.08 0.71 1.13 1.43
K02215.01 7050060 3.783 4.27 0.03 1.36 1.47 1.22
K02218.01 12058204 3.747 4.33 0.14 1.05 1.31 1.77
K02218.02 12058204 3.747 4.33 0.14 1.05 1.31 1.72
K02220.01 6871071 3.751 4.09 0.12 1.59 1.80 2.16
K02220.02 6871071 3.751 4.09 0.12 1.59 1.80 2.43
K02220.03 6871071 3.751 4.09 0.12 1.59 1.80 2.05
K02224.01 8892157 3.757 4.49 0.08 0.94 1.09 1.49
K02224.02 8892157 3.757 4.49 0.08 0.94 1.09 2.19
K02261.01 3734418 3.704 4.35 0.08 0.95 1.17 1.26
K02261.02 3734418 3.704 4.35 0.08 0.95 1.17 0.99
K02282.01 6751874 3.768 4.15 -0.06 1.46 1.68 2.19
K02286.01 8973129 3.738 4.43 -0.12 0.87 1.18 2.00
K02294.01 6934986 3.747 4.18 0.30 1.41 1.53 3.60
K02296.01 11498128 3.743 4.25 -0.00 1.21 1.25 2.61
K02307.01 7661065 3.724 4.52 0.07 0.83 1.04 1.95
K02310.01 11718144 3.739 4.52 0.07 0.88 1.07 2.05
K02317.01 10684670 3.745 4.38 0.30 1.07 0.93 1.19
K02319.01 9003401 3.782 4.28 0.07 1.30 1.06 1.81
K02373.01 10798331 3.746 4.27 0.18 1.18 1.20 2.64
K02374.01 9364290 3.749 4.27 0.11 1.17 1.35 1.59
K02374.02 9364290 3.749 4.27 0.11 1.17 1.35 2.63
K02383.01 9395024 3.752 4.28 0.08 1.25 1.30 1.77
K02392.01 7382313 3.746 4.44 -0.06 0.93 1.12 1.30
K02407.01 12120484 3.773 4.26 0.18 1.35 1.47 2.03
K02410.01 8676038 3.749 4.51 -0.11 0.90 0.99 2.49
K02410.02 8676038 3.749 4.51 -0.11 0.90 0.99 2.54
K02420.01 7107802 3.745 4.29 0.11 1.14 1.30 1.65
K02430.01 3533469 3.733 4.43 0.02 0.99 1.06 1.42
K02437.01 5036705 3.789 4.21 0.10 1.38 1.23 1.72
K02483.01 9851662 3.741 4.52 -0.07 0.90 1.14 1.31
K02509.01 9880190 3.699 4.39 0.02 0.92 1.22 1.24
K02521.01 7183745 3.699 4.49 -0.18 0.77 1.07 2.37
K02521.02 7183745 3.699 4.49 -0.18 0.77 1.07 1.51
K02543.01 12469800 3.694 4.48 -0.02 0.80 1.30 1.48
K02552.01 8757824 3.784 4.30 -0.01 1.21 1.22 1.41
K02571.01 6867588 3.717 4.55 0.19 0.82 1.11 1.12
K02601.01 7531677 3.768 4.20 0.00 1.32 1.09 1.01
K02624.01 8429314 3.763 4.33 0.01 1.12 1.29 3.70
K02628.01 10070468 3.765 4.19 -0.08 1.32 1.34 1.44
K02637.01 9574179 3.755 4.29 0.01 1.22 1.28 0.95
K02656.01 8636539 3.789 4.36 -0.01 1.20 1.22 1.34
K02658.01 8547429 3.763 4.38 0.22 1.11 1.16 1.34
K02730.01 8415200 3.747 4.20 0.03 1.25 1.37 1.30
K02869.01 7767162 3.802 4.22 0.15 1.36 1.07 1.33
K02920.01 7090524 3.741 4.26 0.24 1.32 1.46 1.55
K02931.01 8611257 3.698 4.49 -0.03 0.85 1.13 2.12
Table 3: Data used in Figures 810
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