Self-gravitating envelope solitons in a degenerate quantum plasma system
The existence and the basic features of ion-acoustic (IA) envelope solitons in a self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma system (SG-DQPS), containing inertial non-relativistically degenerate light and heavy ion species as well as inertialess non-relativistically degenerate positron and electron species, have been theoretically investigated by deriving the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. The NLS equation, which governs the dynamics of the IA waves, has disclosed the modulationally stable and unstable regions for the IA waves. The unstable region allows to generate bright envelope solitons which are modulationaly stable. It is found that the stability and the growth rate dependent on the plasma parameters (like, mass and number density of the plasma species). The implications of our results in astronomical compact object (viz. white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, etc.) are briefly discussed.
Keywords:Envelope solitons Modulatioanal Insatability Reductive Perturbation Method
∎ \thankstexte1e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The field of self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma (DQP) physics is one of the current interesting research field among the plasma physicists because of the painstaking observational evidence confirms the existence of such kind of extreme plasma in astronomical compact objects (viz. white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, etc. Chandrasekhar1931 (); Koester1990 (); Fowler1994 (); Koester2002 (); Zaman2017 ()) and potential applications in modern technology (viz. metallic and semiconductor nano-structures, quantum x-ray free-electron lasers, nano-plasmonic devices Atwater2007 (); Stockmann2011 (), metallic nano-particles, spintronics Wolf2001 (), thin metal films, nano-tubes, quantum dots, and quantum well Manfredi2007 (), etc.). The number density of the plasma species is extremely high in self-gravitating DQP system (SG-DQPS) (order of in white dwarfs Koester1990 (); Shapiro1983 () and order of or even more in neutron stars Koester1990 (); Shapiro1983 ()) which leads to generate a strong gravitational field inside the plasma medium. Basically, the SG-DQPS contains degenerate inertial light (viz. Fletcher2006 (); Killian2006 () or Chandrasekhar1931 (); Fowler1994 () or Koester1990 (); Koester2002 ()) and heavy (viz. Vanderburg2015 () or Witze2014 () or Witze2014 ()) ion species and inertialess degenerate electron and positron species. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle established the relationship between the uncertainty to determine the position and momentum of a particle simultaneously, and mathematically it can be expressed as, (where is the uncertainty in position of the particle and is the uncertainty in momentum of the same particle, and is the reduced Planck constant). This indicates that the position of the plasma species are very certain (because of highly dense and compressed plasma species) inside the plasma system but the momenta of the plasma species are extremely uncertain. Therefore, these plasma species are uncertain (certain) in momentum (position) give rise to a very high pressure known as “degenerate pressure”. The expression for the degenerate pressure (degenerate plasma particle species ) as a function of number density () is given by Chandrasekhar1931 (); Fowler1994 (); Mamun2011 ()
where () for the electron (positron) species, and () for the light (heavy) ion species, respectively. The is the relativistic factor ( stands for non-relativistic case and stands for ultra-relativistic case) and is the mass. It is clear from equation (1) that the degenerate pressure is independent on thermal temperature but depends on degenerate particle number density and mass . Finally, the strong gravitational field (degenerate pressure) of the SG-DQPS wants to squeeze (stretch) the plasma system but they are counter-balanced to each other.
During the last few years, a large number of authors have studied the propagation of nonlinear waves in DQP by considering self-gravitational or without self-gravitational field. Asaduzzaman et al. Asaduzzaman2017 () have investigated the linear and nonlinear propagation of self-gravitational perturbation mode in a SG-DQPS and found that self-gravitational perturbation mode becomes unstable when the wavelength of the perturbation mode is minimum. Mamun Mamun2017 () examined the self-gravito shock structures in a SG-DQPS. Chowdhury et al. Chowdhury2018 () have studied the modulational instability (MI) of nucleus-acoustic waves in a DQP system and found that the bright and dark envelope solitons are modulationally stable. But to the best of our knowledge, no attempt has been made to study MI of the ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) and formation of the envelope solitons in any kind of SG-DQPS. Therefore, in the present work, a SG-DQPS (containing inertialess degenerate electron and positron species, inertial degenerate light as well as heavy ion species) has been considered to obtain the conditions of MI of the IAWs and the formation of the envelope solitons, and also to identify their basic features.
The manuscript is organized as follows. The basic governing equations for the dynamics of the SG-DQPS are descried in Sec. 2. The derivation of the NLS equation is provided in Sec. 3. The stability of the IAWs and envelope solitons are examined in Sec. 4. A brief discussion is finally presented in Sec. 5.
2 Governing equation
We consider a SG-DQPS containing inertialess degenerate electrons (mass ; number density ), positrons (mass ; number density ), inertial degenerate light ions (mass ; number density ), and heavy ions (mass ; number density ). The detail information about the light and heavy nuclei is provided in Table 1. The nonlinear dynamics of the SG-DQPS is described by
where , , and are the degenerate pressure of the degenerate electrons, positrons, and light ions, respectively; () is the space (time) variable; is the light ion fluid speed; is the self-gravitational potential; is the universal gravitational constant. Now, the charge neutrality condition for the electrostatic wave potential is
where and are the charge state of light and heavy ions, respectively. Here, it may be noted that the effect of the electrostatic wave potential has been neglected. Now, we consider normalized variables, namely, , , , , , , (where and are the equilibrium number densities of the light ion and electron species, respectively). After normalization, Eqs. ()-() can be taken in the following form
where , , , , , , (which is greater than for any set of heavy and light ion species), (here, , where varies from to , and varies from to , and this means that ), , . For inertialess degenerate electron and positron, the number densities can be expressed as
|Light ion species||Heavy ion species|
Killian2006 (); Fletcher2006 ()
Koester1990 (); Koester2002 ()
3 Derivation of NLS equation
To investigate the MI of the IA waves in SG-DQPS, we will derive the NLS equation by employing the reductive perturbation method Taniuti1969 (); Chowdhury2017a (). So, we first introduce the stretched co-ordinates for independent variables and in terms of and as follows:
where is the envelope group velocity and is a small dimensionless expansion parameter. Then we can expand all dependent physical variables , , and in power series of as
where and . The compatibility of the system leads to the linear dispersion relation as
The dispersion characteristics of the wave are depicted in Fig. 2 [obtained from Eq. (24)], which indicates that (a) the angular wave frequency () of the IAWs exponentially decreases with the increase of ; (b) the value of increases with the increase of for the fixed value of (via ). The second order () reduced equations with are given by,
thus, the expression for is obtained as
The amplitude of the second-order harmonics is found to be proportional to and these are expressed as
where the coefficients are
where for simplicity. The coefficient of dispersion and nonlinear terms & are given by
, and .
4 Stability analysis and envelope solitons
Let us now analysis the MI of IAWs by considering the linear solution of the NLS equation (29) in the form (c. c denotes the complex conjugate), where and + c. c. Now, by substituting these values into Eq. (29), one readily obtains the following nonlinear dispersion relation Chowdhury2018 (); Sultana2011 (); Schamel2002 (); Kourakis2005 (); Fedele2002 (); Chowdhury2017b ()
Here, the perturbed wave number and the perturbed frequency are different from the carrier wave number and frequency . It is observed from Eq. (32) that the IAWs will be modulationally stable (unstable) in SG-DQPS for that range of values of in which is negative (positive), i.e., (). When , the corresponding value of () is known as the critical or threshold wave number () for the onset of MI. The variation of with for is shown in Fig. 2 and which clearly indicates that (a) the IAWs are modulatonally stable (unstable) in SG-DQPS for small (long) wavelength; (b) the increases with the increase of for constant value of (via ). In the modulationally unstable () region and under this condition , the MI growth rate can be written [from Eq. (32)] as
The effect of and on the growth rate are presented in Figs. 4 and 4, where is plotted against and it is observed that (a) the growth rate () increases with the increase in the value of positron number density , but decreases with increase of the electron number density (via ); (b) the maximum value of increases (decreases) with the decrease of () for the fixed value of and (via ); (c) on the other hand, the maximum value of increases (decreases) with the decrease of () for the fixed value of and (via ). So, the charge state and mass of the light and heavy ion plays an opposite role to manifest the in SG-DQPS. The physics of this result is that the nonlinearity of the SG-DQPS increases (decreases) with the increase of the value of or ( or ) which enhance (suppress) the maximum value of the .
The self-gravitating bright envelop solitons are generated in the modulationally unstable region (when ) and the solitonic solution of Eq. (29) for the self-gravitating bright envelope solitons can be written as Chowdhury2018 (); Sultana2011 (); Schamel2002 (); Kourakis2005 (); Fedele2002 ()
where is the propagation speed of the localized pulse, is the pulse width which can be written as ( is the constant amplitude), and is the oscillating frequency for . The self-gravitating bright envelop solitons which are obtained from the numerical analysis of Eq. (34), are depicted in Figs. 6 and 6. The bright envelop solitons remain same as time() passes, i.e., the self-gravitating bright envelop solitons are modulationally stable (please see Fig. 6).
In our above analysis, we have considered an unmagnetized realistic laboratory or astrophysical SG-DQPS consisting of inertialess non-relativistically degenerate electron and positron species, inertial non-relativistically degenerate light ion species as well as heavy ion species. The NLS equation has been derived by employing the well-known reductive perturbation method, which governs the evolution of nonlinear IAWs. The notable informations that have been found from our theoretical investigation, can be pin-pointed as follows:
The angular wave frequency () of the IAWs exponentially decreases with the increase of . On the other hand, the value of increases with the increase of for the fixed value of (via ).
The IAWs will be modulationally stable (unstable) for that range of values of in which is negative (positive), i.e., ().
The growth rate () increases with the increase in the value of positron number density , but decreases with increase of the electron number density (via ). On the other hand, the maximum value of increases (decreases) with the decrease of () for the fixed value of and (via ). Furthermore, the maximum value of increases (decreases) with the decrease of () for the fixed value of and (via ).
The self-gravitating bright envelop solitons remain same (modulationally stable) as time passes.
The findings of this theoretical investigation may be useful for understanding the nonlinear structure (bright envelope solitons) of a SG-DQPS in space (viz. neutron stars and white dwarf Chandrasekhar1931 (); Koester1990 (); Fowler1994 (); Koester2002 (); Zaman2017 ()).
- journal: Eur. Phys. J. D
- S. Chandrasekhar, Astrophys. J. 74, 81 (1931)
- D. Koester, G. Chanmugam, Rep. Prog. Phys. 53, 837 (1990)
- R.H. Fowler, J. Astrophys. Astr. 15, 115 (1994)
- D. Koester, Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 11, 33 (2002)
- D.M.S. Zaman, M. Amina, P.R. Dip, A.A. Mamun 2017 Eur. Phys. J. Plus 132, 457.
- H.A. Atwater, Sci. Am. 296, 56 (2007)
- M.I. Stockmann, Phys. Today 64, 39 (2011)
- S.A. Wolf, D. Awschalom, R.A. Buhrman, Science 294, 1488 (2001)
- G. Manfredi, P.A. Hervieux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061108 (2007)
- S.L. Shapiro, S.A. Teukolsky, Black Holes, White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars: the Physics of Compact Objects (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983)
- R.S. Fletcher, X.L. Zhang, S.L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 105003 (2006)
- T.C. Killian, Nature (London) 441, 297 (2006)
- A. Vanderburg et al., Nature (London) 526, 546 (2015)
- A. Witze, Nature 510, 196 (2014)
- A.A. Mamun, P.K. Shukla, Europhys. Lett. 94, 65002 (2011)
- M. Asaduzzaman, A. Mannan, A.A. Mamun, Phys. Plasmas 24, 052102 (2017)
- A.A. Mamun, Phys. Plasmas 24, 102306 (2017)
- N.A. Chowdhury, M.M. Hasan, A. Mannan, A.A. Manun, Vacuum 147, 31 (2018)
- T. Taniuti, N. Yajima, J. Math. Phys. 10, 1369 (1969)
- N.A. Chowdhury, A. Mannan, M.M. Hasan, A.A. Mamun, Chaos 27, (2017) 093105.
- S. Sultana, I. Kourakis, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53, 045003 (2011)
- R. Fedele, H. Schamel, Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 313 (2002)
- I. Kourakis, P.K. Shukla, Nonlinear Proc. Geophys. 12, 407 (2005)
- R. Fedele, H. Schamel, Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 313 (2002)
- N.A. Chowdhury, A. Mannan, A.A. Mamun, Phys. Plasmas 24, (2017) 113701.