Radiative transfer model for contaminated slabs : experimental validations
This article presents a set of spectro-goniometric measurements of different water ice samples and the comparison with an approximated radiative transfer model. The experiments were done using the spectro-radiogoniometer described in Brissaud et al. (2004). The radiative transfer model assumes an isotropization of the flux after the second interface and is fully described in Andrieu et al. (2015).
Two kind of experiments were conducted. First, the specular spot was closely investigated, at high angular resolution, at the wavelength of , where ice behaves as a very absorbing media. Second, the bidirectional reflectance was sampled at various geometries, including low phase angles on 61 wavelengths ranging from to .
In order to validate the model, we made a qualitative test to demonstrate the relative isotropization of the flux. We also conducted quantitative assessments by using a bayesian inversion method in order to estimate the parameters (e.g. sample thickness, surface roughness) from the radiative measurements only. A simple comparison between the retrieved parameters and the direct independent measurements allowed us to validate the model.
We developed an innovative bayesian inversion approach to quantitatively estimate the uncertainties on the parameters avoiding the usual slow Monte Carlo approach. First we built lookup tables, and then searched the best fits and calculated a posteriori density probability functions. The results show that the model is able to reproduce the spectral behavior of water ice slabs, as well as the specular spot. In addition, the different parameters of the model are compatible with independent measurements.
[1,2]AndrieuFrançois \Author[1,2]SchmidtFrédéric \AuthorSchmittBernard \AuthorDoutéSylvain \AuthorBrissaudOlivier
1]Université Paris-Sud, Laboratoire GEOPS, UMR8148, Orsay F-91405, France 2]CNRS, Orsay F-91405, France 3]Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, Grenoble 38041, France
ANDRIEU F. (email@example.com)
Various species of ices are present throughout the Solar System. From water ice and snow on Earth to nitrogen ice on Triton (Zent et al., 1989), not forgetting carbon dioxide ice on Mars (Leighton and Murray, 1966). Ice an snow covered areas have a strong impact on planetary climate dynamics, as they can lead to significant regional scale albedo changes at the surface and surface/atmosphere volatiles interactions. The physical properties of the cover have also an impact on the energy balance : for example the albedo depend on the grain size of the snow (Dozier et al., 2009; Negi and Kokhanovsky, 2011), on the roughness of the interface (Lhermitte et al., 2014) on the presence or not and the physical properties of impurities (Dumont et al., 2014), or on the specific surface area (Picard et al., 2009; Mary et al., 2013). The study and monitoring of theses parameters is a key to constrain the energy balance of a planet.
Radiative transfer models have proven essential to retrieve such properties and their evolution at a large scale, and different families exist. Ray tracing algorithms, such as those described in Picard et al. (2009) for snow or Pilorget et al. (2013) for compact polycrystalline ice simulate the complex path of millions of rays into the surface. They provide very accurate simulations, but have the weakness of being time consuming. Analytical solutions of the radiative transfer in homogeneous granular media have been developed for example by Shkuratov et al. (1999) and Hapke (1981). They are fast, and when the surface cannot be described as homogeneous, they must be combined with another family of techniques such as discrete ordinate methods like DISORT (Stamnes et al., 1988). These methods have been widely studied on Earth snow (Carmagnola et al., 2013; Dozier et al., 2009; Dumont et al., 2010; Painter and Dozier, 2004) and other planetary cryospheres (Appéré et al., 2011; Eluszkiewicz and Moncet, 2003), modeling a granular surface. Compact polycrystalline ices have however been recognized to exist on several objects : CO on Mars (Kieffer and Titus, 2001; Eluszkiewicz et al., 2005), N on Triton and Pluto, (Zent et al., 1989; Eluszkiewicz and Moncet, 2003) and probably SO on Io (Eluszkiewicz and Moncet, 2003), owing to the very long light path-lengths measured, over several decimeters. Radiative transfer in compact slabs is different from in granular media. We developed an approximated model (Andrieu et al., 2015) designed to study contaminated ice slabs, with a fast numerical implementation, that has already been numerically validated. The main objective of the model is the analysis of massive spectro-imaging planetary data of these surfaces. For this purpose, it is semi analytic and fast implemented. It is designed to retrieve the variations of thickness and impurity content of compact polycrystalline planetary ices.
In the present article, we will test the accuracy of this approximated model on laboratory spectroscopic measurements of pure water ice Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). The goal is to propose an inversion framework to retrieve surface properties, including uncertainties in order to demonstrate the validity of the approach. In order to speed up the inversion, we based the algorithm on look-up tables that minimize the computation time of the direct model. This strategy will be very useful to analyze real hyperspectral images. The thickness of ice estimated from the inversion is validated in comparison to real direct measurements. Also the specular lobe is adjusted to demonstrate that the model is able to reasonably fit the data with a coherent roughness value.
1 Description of the model
The model, Andrieu et al. (2015), is inspired from an existing one described in Hapke (1981) and Douté and Schmitt (1998), that simulates the bidirectional reflectance of stratified granular media. It has been adapted to compact slab, contaminated with pseudo-spherical inclusions, and a rough top interface. In the context of this work, we suppose a layer of pure slab ice, overlaying an optically thick layer of granular ice, as described on figure 1. The roughness of the first interface is described using the probability density function of orientations of slopes defined in Hapke (1984). This distribution of orientations is fully described by a mean slope parameter . The ice matrix is described using its optical constants and it thickness. Within the slab, the model can also incorporate inclusions, supposed to be close to spherical and homogeneously distributed inside the matrix. They are described by their optical constants, their volumetric proportions and their characteristic grain-sizes. There can be several different types of inclusions. Each type can be of any material, except the one constituting the matrix : it can be any other kind of ice, mineral, or even bubbles.
Figure 2 illustrates the general principle of the model. The simulated bidirectional reflectance results from two separate contributions: specular and diffuse. The specular contribution of a measurement is estimated from the roughness parameter, the optical constants of the matrix, and the apertures of the light source and the detector. The surface is considered as constituted of many unresolved facets, which orientations follow the defined probability density function. The specular reflectance is obtained integrating every reflection on the different facets. The total reflection coefficient at the first rough interface is obtained by integrating specular contributions in every emergent direction, at a given incidence. This gives the total amount of energy transmitted into the system constituted of the contaminated slab and the substrate. The diffuse contribution is then estimated solving the radiative transfer equation inside this system under various hypothesis. It is considered that : (i) the first transit through the slab is anisotropic due to the collimated radiation from the source, and that there is an isotropization at the second rough interface (i.e. when the radiation reach the semi-infinite substrate). For the refraction and the internal reflection, every following transit is considered isotropic. (ii) the geometrical optics are valid. This means that the size of the inclusions and the thickness of the slab layer must be larger than the considered wavelength. (iii) the inclusions inside the matrix are close to spherical and homogeneously distributed. The reflexion and transmission factors of the layers are obtained using an analytical estimation of Fresnel coefficients described in Chandrasekhar (1960); Douté and Schmitt (1998), and a simple statistical approach, detailed in Andrieu et al. (2015). The contribution of the semi infinite substrate is described by its single scattering albedo. Finally, as the slab layer is under a collimated radiation from the light source, and under a diffuse radiation from the granular substrate, the resulting total bidirectional reflectance is computed using adding doubling formulas.
The bidirectional reflectance spectra were measured using the spectrogonio-radiometer from IPAG fully described in Brissaud et al. (2004). We collected spectra in the near infrared at incidences ranging from to , emergence angles from to , and azimuth angles from to . The sample is illuminated with a large monochromatic beam (divergence ) an the near infrared spectrum covering the range from to is measured by an InSb photovoltaic detector. This detector has a nominal aperture of , that result in a field of view on the sample of approximately in diameter. The minimum angular sampling of illumination and observation directions is , with a reproducibility of . In order to avoid azimuthal anisotropy, the sample is rotated during the acquisition. The sample rotation axis may be very slightly misadjusted, resulting on a notable angular drift on the emergence measured up to .
2.2 Ice BRDF measurements
The ice samples were obtained by sawing artificial columnar water ice in sections. These sections were put on top of an optically thick layer of compacted snow, that was collected in Arselle, in the French Alps. The spectral measurements were conducted in a cold chamber at 263K. Still, the ice and the snow were unstable in the measurement’s environment, due to the dryness of the chamber’s atmosphere. The grain-size of the snow showed an evolution and the thickness of a given slab showed a decrease of . Each sample needs a acquisition time of . For each measurement, the ice slab was sliced, and its thickness was measured in five different locations. It was then set on top of the snow sample, and this system was put into the spectro-goniometer, and put into rotation for the measurement. As the surface is not perfectly plane, the measured thickness is not constant. This results in an standard-deviation in the measurement of the thickness than ranges from to in our study, depending on the sample.
The specular contribution was measured on a thick slab sample on top of Arselle snow. This sample is the same sample that sample 3 described in the next paragraph. The illumination was at an incidence angle of , and 63 different emergent geometries were sampled, ranging from to in emergence, and from to in azimuth. A measure at the wavelength of is represented on figure 5 (a). The sampling is in emergence and azimuth within and in emergence and and in azimuth.
Diffuse reflectance spectra
The diffuse contribution was measured on three samples of different slab thickness. The three thicknesses were measured on different locations of the samples with a caliper before the spectrogonio measurement, resulting in , , , respectively for samples 1, 2 and 3, with errors at . wavelengths were sampled ranging from to . Spectra were collected on 39 different points of the BRDF, respectively for the incidence, emergence and azimuth angles : , and . This set of angles results in only 39 different geometries because the azimutal angle is not defined for a nadir emergence.
Snow diffuse reflectance spectra
Diffuse reflectance spectra of natural snow only were also measured. The objective was to estimate the effect of a slab layer on the BRDF. Figure 3 show on the same plots the reflectance factor versus phase angle of the snow and the snow covered with a thick ice slab (sample 1). It illustrates the two most notable effects of a thin layer of slab ice on top of an optically thick layer of snow. The most intuitive effect is to lower the level of reflectance : it is due to absorption during the long optical path lengths in the compact ice matrix. The second is that the radiation is more lambertian than the one of only snow. This data gives credit to the first hypothesis of isotropization of the radiation formulated in the model (see Section 1). The description of the bottom granular layer as isotropic, defined only its single scattering albedo, may be considered brutal, but this dataset shows that a thin coverage of slab ice even on a very directive material such as snow, is enough to strongly flatten the BRDF.
We designed an inversion method aiming at massive data analysis. This method consists in two steps : first the generation of a synthetic database that is representative of the variability of the model, and then comparison with actual data. To generate the synthetic database, we used optical constants for water ice at . The difference between the actual temperature of the room and the temperature assumed for the optical constants has negligible effect. We combined the datasets of Warren and Brandt (2008) and Schmitt et al. (1998) making the junction at , the former set for the shorter wavelengths, and the latter for the wavelengths larger than .
In order to validate the model on the specular reflection from the slab, we chose to use the reflectance at , where the ice is very absorbing. Figures 4, and 5 clearly demonstrate that there is negligible diffuse contribution in geometry outside the specular lobe from the sample with thick pure slab. Thus, the roughness parameter is the only one impacting the reflectance in the model. We chose to inverse this parameter first, and validate the specular contribution.
We will then focus on the validation in the spectral domain, for the diffuse contribution. We will use the estimation of the roughness parameter obtained earlier and the spectral data in order to estimate the slab thickness and the grain-size of the snow substrate. To do this, we assumed that the roughness was not changing significantly enough to have a notable impact on diffuse reflectance from one sample to another. This assumption is justified by the fact that the different columnar ice samples were made the same way, as flat as possible and the low value of retrieved as discussed in the next section. It is confirmed by the results of section 3.2, that suggest a very low roughness, as expected. Such low roughness parameter have negligible influence on the amount of energy injected into the surface.
3.1 Inversion strategy
The inversion consists in estimating the model parameter from the model , that are close to the data . Tarantola (1982) showed that it can be mathematically solved by considering each element as a Probability Density Function (PDF) . In non-linear direct problem, the solution may not be analytically approached. Nevertheless, it is possible to sample the solution PDF with a Monte Carlo approach as shown in Mosegaard and Tarantola (1995), but this solution is very time consuming.
The actual observation is considered as prior information on data in the observation space . It is assumed to be a -dimension gaussian PDF , with mean and covariance matrix . The values are the observations for each element (angular or spectral as described later). The covariance matrix is assumed here to be diagonal since measurements at a given geometry/wavelength are independent of the other measurements. The diagonal elements are , with being the standard deviation. The prior information on model parameters in the parameter space is independent to the data and corresponds to the state of null information if no information is available on the parameters. We consider an uniform PDF in their definition space . The state of null information represents the case when no information is available. It is trivial in our case and represent the uniform PDF in the parameters space . The posterior PDF in the model space as defined by Tarantola (1982) is :
where is a constant and is the likelihood function
where is the theoretical relationship of the PDF for given . We do not consider errors on the model itself, so also noted for simulated data. So the likelihood is simplified into :
and in the case of an uniform prior information , the posterior PDF is:
this expression is explicitly :
The factor is adjusted to normalize the PDF. The mean value of the estimated parameter can be computed by :
and the standard deviation:
In order to speed up the inversion strategy but keep the advantage of the Bayesian approach, we choose to sample the parameter space with regular and reasonably fine steps, noted . The likelihood for each element is:
The derivation of posterior PDF with such formalism for specular lobe inversion and for spectral inversion are explained in the next sections.
3.2 Specular lobe
To study the specular spot, we have to consider the whole angular sampling of the spot as single data measurement. Similar to the “pixel” (contraction of picture element), we choose to define the “angel” (contraction of angular element), as a single element in a gridded angular domain. Interestingly, angel also refer to a supernatural being represented in various forms of glowing light. A single angel measurement could not well constrain the model, even at different wavelengths. Instead a full sampling around the specular lobe should be enough, even at one single wavelength. We chose a wavelength where the diffuse contribution was negligible in order to simplify the inversion strategy. We first generated a synthetic database (look-up table), using the direct radiative transfer model. We simulated spectra in the same geometrical conditions, for a thick ice layer over a granular ice substrate constituted of wide grains. These two last parameters are not important since the absorption is so high in ice, such the main contribution is from the specular reflection, and the diffuse contribution is negligible.
The sampling of the parameters space, that is the lookup table, must represent correctly every possible variability. For this study, we sampled the roughness parameter from to with a constant step . We use a likelihood function defined in Eq. 8, where and are -elements vectors, with the number of angel (63 in that study). They represent respectively the simulated and measured reflectance at a given wavelength in every geometry. is a matrix. It represents the uncertainties on the data. In this case, we considered each wavelengths independently, thus generating a diagonal matrix, containing the level of errors given by the technical data of the instrument given by Brissaud et al. (2004). The roughness parameter returned by the inversion will be described by its normalized PDF:
The best match, is the value with the highest probability. The full PDF can be estimated by its mean :
and associated standard deviation :
We give error bars on the results that correspond to two standard deviation, and thus a returned value for that is
3.3 Diffuse spectra
When out of the specular spot, the radiation is controlled by the complex transfer through the media (slab ice and bottom snow). The experimental samples were made of pure water slab ice, without impurity. We generated the look up table for every measurement geometry at very high spectral resolution () as required by the variability of the optical constants of water ice, and then down sampled it at the resolution of the instrument (). We sampled the 17,085 combinations of two parameters for the 39 different geometries : the thickness of the slab from to (noted ) every (noted ), and the grain-size of the granular substrate from to every and from to every (noted and the corresponding ). The parameter space is thus irregularly paved with .
For the inversion, we used the same method as previously described, with a likelihood function that is written as in equation 8. Two different strategies were adopted. First, we inverted each spectra independently. 39 geometries were sampled (described in section 2.2), and thus we conducted 39 inversions for each sample. This time and are thus respectively the simulated and measured spectra. Then and are -elements vectors, where is the number of bands (61 in that study) and is a matrix. As previously (see Section 3.2), we considered each wavelengths independently, thus generating a diagonal matrix, containing the level of errors given by the technical data of the instrument given by Brissaud et al. (2004). The error is a percentage of the measurement, and thus will be different for every inversion.
Secondly, we inverted the BRDF as a whole, for each sample. For this method, and are respectively the simulated and measured BRDF, and thus are -elements vectors (2379 in that study), where is the number of bands (61 in that study) and is the number of geometries (39 in that study) sampled. is a diagonal matrix, containing the error on the data. We represent the results the same way as previously, but there are two parameters to inverse. For the sake of readability, we plot the normalized marginal probability density function for each parameter. We present here the general method for the inversion of parameters : the slab thickness and the grain-size of the substrate. The PDF for the two parameters is described by :
For a given parameter , the marginal PDF of the solution is :
with . The best match is the value with the highest probability. The marginal PDF can be described by the mean :
and the associated standard deviation :
As for the roughness parameter, we give error bars on the results that correspond to two standard deviation, and thus a returned value for that is
4.1 Specular lobe
We performed the inversion taking into account 63 angels measurement, but for the sake of readability, figure 4 represents only the reflectance in the principle plane. The shapes and the intensities on Figure 4a are compatible, but measurement and simulation are not centered at the same point. The simulation is centered at the geometrical optics specular point (emergence and azimuth ), whereas the measurement seems centered around an emergence of . This could be due to slightly mis-adjustment of the rotation axis of the sample in the instrument. This kind of mis-adjustment are common, and can easily result in a notable shift up to of the measure. We simulated different possible shifts in this range, and found a best match represented on Figure 4b for a shift of in emergence, as it was suggested by the first plot on figure 4a, and in azimuth. The measurements and the best match are represented on figure 5. The shape as well as the magnitude of the specular lobe are very well reproduced. Both lobes show a little asymmetry forward. This asymmetry is not due to the sampling as it is present also when the simulation is not shifted (see the red curve on figure 4). It is due to an increase of the Fresnel reflexion coefficient when the phase angle increase for this range of geometries. Figure 6 shows the PDF a posteriori for the parameter . The best match was obtained with . The inversion method gives a results close to gaussian shape at . Unfortunately, we have no direct measurements of . It would require a digital terrain model of the sample that is difficult to obtain in icy samples. Still we find a low value, that is consistent with the production in laboratory of slabs of columnar ice, that is very flat, but still imperfects as described in the dataset. The average slope is compatible with a long wavelength slope at the scale of the sample, demonstrating that the micro-scale was not important in our case. Indeed, for a sample that has a length , an standard deviation on the thickness can be attributed to a general slope due to a small error in the parallelism of the two surfaces of the slab. In the case of sample 3, and result in , which is compatible with the roughness given by the inversion. We thus think that what we see is an apparent roughness due to a small general slope on the samples, and that the roughness at the surface is much lower than this value.
Moreover, the value retrieved by the inversion is very well constrained as the probability density function is very sharp. This means that we have an a posteriori uncertainty on the result that is very low. The quality of the reproduction of the specular spot by the model suggest that the surface slope description is a robust description despite its apparent simplicity. Especially, one single slope parameter is enough to describe this surface.
To reproduce diffuse reflectance we used the results obtained with the specular measurement and assumed that the roughness of the samples was not changing much between the experiments. The range of variations in roughness should be negligible in the spectral analysis. We simulated slabs over snow letting as free parameters the grain-size of the substrate and the thickness of the slab. Figure 7 represent examples of the best matches we obtained for the three measured samples at various geometries. We also represented the mismatch between the best fit and the observations. We find an agreement between the data and the model that is acceptable. Nevertheless, there seems to be a decrease of quality in the fits as the thickness increase. Figure 8 shows on the same plot an example of the marginal PDF for the three samples that are associated with the previous fits. Figure 8 for the thickness of the slab (a) and the grain-size of the snow substrate (b). The thickness is well constrained as the marginal probability density functions a posteriori are relatively sharp and very close to gaussian. On the contrary, the grain-size of the substrate seems to have a limited impact on the result since it is little constrained. The marginal PDF for the grain-size of the substrate are broad, and thus the a posteriori relative uncertainty on the result is very high. Unfortunately, we have no reliable measurement of the grain-size of the substrate, as it is evolving during the time of the measurements. The general trend of decreasing grainsize seems to be in agreement with eye’s impression.
Figure 9 show the measurements and the final result of the inversion of the thickness for the three samples, and for 39 measurement geometries independently. The data and the model are compatible. Still, the thickness of the sample 1 is slightly overestimated. This may reveal a sensitivity limit of the model. The thickness of sample 3 seems underestimated. This could be partly due to the duration of the measurement : the slab sublimates as the measure is being taken. Moreover, the specular measurements were performed on that sample increasing even more the duration of the experiment. The inversions points on Figure 9 are sorted by increasing incidence, and for each incidence, by increasing azimuth. There seems to have an influence of the geometry on the returned result : it is particularly clear for sample 2. The estimated thickness tend to increase with incidence and decrease with azimuth. This effect disappear for large thicknesses (sample 3). Figure 10 show the measure and the best match at the wavelength, when conducting the inversion on the whole BRDF dataset for each sample. The relatively flat behavior of the radiation with the phase angle is reasonably well reproduced. The quality of the geometrical match increases with the thickness of the sample. This is consistent with the fact that a thicker slab will permit a stronger isotropization of the radiation. It is also consistent with the disappearance of the geometrical dependence on the estimation for large thicknesses noted on Figure 9. The values of thicknesses returned by the inversion are displayed on Figure 11a : they are also compatible with the data, and the results are close to the one given by independent inversions on each geometry (see Figures 8 and 9). The grainsizes returned, even if compatible with the independent inversion results, are at the boundary of the definition range of the parameter, for samples 2 and 3. This mean that the model cannot estimate this parameter correctly. Indeed, as displayed on Figure 11, the a posteriori marginal probability density functions for the samples 2 and 3 are very close to a Dirac at the lower limit of the domain. This mean that the model inversion process cannot fit a value for this parameter inside the definition domain that is fully satisfying. This suggest an evolution of the conditions of the experiment between the measure for the sample 1 and the others. The fact that the returned value is at the lower boundary of the grain-size range suggest the the actual grainsize of the snow is lower than this value. Unfortunately, such grain-size would contradict the fundamental hypothesis of geometrical optics assumed by the model. This results thus shall be interpreted as grain-sizes smaller than the limit of detection. This kind of very small grain-size could be produced during the experiments, by a small temperature difference between the slabs and the natural snow, resulting in the condensation of frost at the bottom of the slab layer.
[Discussion and conclusion]
The aim of this present work is to validate an approximate radiative transfer model developed in Andrieu et al. (2015) using several assumptions. The most debating one is the isotropization of the radiation when it reaches the substrate. We first validated qualitatively this assumption with snow and ice data. We then quantitatively tested and validated our method using a pure slab ice with various thickness and snow as a bottom condition. The thicknesses retrieved by the inversion are compatible with the measurements for every geometry, demonstrating the robustness of this method to retrieve the slab thickness from spectroscopy only. The result given by the inversion of the whole dataset is also compatible with the measurements.
We also validate the angular response of such slab in the specular lobe. Unfortunately, it was not possible to measure the micro-topography in detail to compare with the retrieved data. Nevertheless, we found a very good agreement between the simulation and the data. The average slope is compatible with a long wavelength slope at the scale of the sample, demonstrating that the micro-scale was not important in our case. This is probably due to the sharp slicing method used. In future work, an experimental validation of the specular lobe and roughness should be addressed.
The large uncertainties on the grain size inversion demonstrate that the bottom condition is less important than the slab for the radiation field at first order, as expected. Even at a thickness of , since water ice is highly absorbent, the bottom layer is difficult to sense.
On figure 7, there seems to be a decrease in the quality of the fit when the slab thickness increase. We explain it by the order in which the experiments were conducted. Indeed, the first measurement was of the thinnest slab and the last on the thickest. In the meantime, the snow substrate was sublimating. The errors in the fits could be due to the increasing contamination in the substrate. The natural snow cannot be perfectly pure : as it sublimates during the measurements, the contribution of the contaminants become stronger and stronger. These contaminant are not known, and not taken into account in the model. A way to avoid this problem could be to set the slab ice on top of a non volatile granular material, such as dry mineral sand, which optical constants are known or can be determined. However this would not solve another problem that is the re-condensation of water into frost between the granular substrate and the slab.
The comparison of the a posteriori uncertainties on the thickness of the slab and the grain-size of the snow substrate illustrate the fact that those uncertainties depend both on the constraint brought by the model itself and the uncertainty introduced in the measurement, that only the bayesian approach can handle. The use of bayesian formalism, is thus very powerful in comparison with traditional minimization techniques.
We propose here an fast and innovative inversion method aiming at massive inversion, for instance for remote sensing spectro-imaging data, that enables to accurately estimate the uncertainties on the model’s parameters. As an example, the look-up table used for this project were computed in for the roughness study (1763 wavelengths sampled, 30933 spectra), and for the thickness and grainsize study (33,186 wavelengths sampled, 666,315 spectra). The inversion itself were performed in less than one tenth of a second for specular lobe and independent spectral inversions, and for BRDF-as-a-whole inversions. Every calculation was computed on one RAM Intel CPU. It has to be noted that once the lookup table has been created, an unlimited number of inversion can be conducted. The model is fast and the inversion is highly parallel and thus adapted to the study of the compact ice covered surfaces of the Solar system. For inversion over very large databases, the code has been adapted to GPU paralellization. It is also possible to increase de speed of the calculation of the look-up tables by doing a multi-CPU computing.
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