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Abstract

Œï£ª ï ç áâì pp-¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨ï à áᬠâਢ ¥âáï ¢ à ¬ª å 䥭®¬¥­®«®£¨ç¥áª®© ¬®¤¥«¨ á ®¡à §®¢ ­¨¥¬ 梥â­ëå áâàã­. ‚ ¯à¥¤¯®«®¦¥­¨¨, çâ® í«¥¬¥­â à­®¥ á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨¥ ॠ«¨§ã¥âáï ª ª ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨¥ ¤¢ãå 梥⮢ëå ¤¨¯®«¥©, ¤«ï 䨪á æ¨¨ ¯ à ¬¥â஢ ¬®¤¥«¨ ®æ¥­¨¢ ¥âáï ¯®«­®¥ ­¥ã¯à㣮¥ á¥ç¥­¨¥ ¨ ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì § à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ. Žá®¡®¥ ¢­¨¬ ­¨¥ 㤥«ï¥âáï ¬®¤¥«¨à®¢ ­¨î ­¥®¡å®¤¨¬ëå ¤«ï ®¯¨á ­¨ï ª®à५ï権 íªáª«î§¨¢­ëå ¯ àâ®­­ëå à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨© á ãç¥â®¬ § ª®­  á®åà ­¥­¨ï í­¥à£¨¨ ¨ 䨪á æ¨¨ 業âà  ¬ áá.  §à ¡®â ­  «£®à¨â¬ ᫨ﭨï áâàã­ ¢ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®© ¯«®áª®áâ¨, ãç¨â뢠î騩 ¨å ª®­¥ç­ãî ¯à®â殮­­®áâì ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥. ‚ à ¬ª å í⮣® ¬¥å ­¨§¬  ­ ©¤¥­® ¢«¨ï­¨¥ íä䥪⮢ ᫨ﭨï áâàã­ ­  ¤ «ì­¨¥ ª®à५ï樨.

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russian

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‚ ­ áâ®ï饥 ¢à¥¬ï ¯à®¢®¤ïâáï íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­âë ¯® ¨§ã祭¨î á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨©  ¤à®­®¢ ¨ â殮«ëå ¨®­®¢ ­  ª®«« ©¤¥à¥ LHC (–…) ¯à¨ ᢥàå¢ë᮪¨å í­¥à£¨ïå. ®¤ ¢«ïî饥 ¡®«ì設á⢮ ç áâ¨æ, ஦¤ îé¨åáï ¢ â ª¨å á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå, ¯à¨­ ¤«¥¦ â ª ¬ï£ª®© á®áâ ¢«ïî饩 ᯥªâà , ­¥ ®¯¨á뢠¥¬®© ¢ à ¬ª å ⥮ਨ ¢®§¬ã饭¨© ª¢ ­â®¢®© å஬®¤¨­ ¬¨ª¨ (Š•„), ¨ ¯®í⮬㠨ᯮ«ì§ãîâáï ¯®«ã䥭®¬¥­®«®£¨ç¥áª¨¥ ¬®¤¥«¨.

Ž¤­®© ¨§ â ª¨å ¬®¤¥«¥©, ¯à¨¬¥­ï¥¬®© ¤«ï ®¯¨á ­¨ï ¬ï£ª®© á®áâ ¢«ïî饩  ¤à®­­ëå ¨ 拉à­ëå ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨© ¯à¨ ¢ë᮪¨å í­¥à£¨ïå, ï¥âáï ¬®¤¥«ì ª¢ àª-£«î®­­ëå áâàã­ A. Capella, U. P. Sukhatme, C. I. Tan, and Van J. Tran Thanh (1994); Drescher et al. (2001), ¢¥¤ãé ï ᢮¥ ¯à®¨á宦¤¥­¨¥ ®â ।¦¥¢áª®£® ¯®¤å®¤ . ‚ í⮩ ¬®¤¥«¨ ¯à¨ ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨¨  ¤à®­®¢ ­  ¯¥à¢®¬ íâ ¯¥ ä®à¬¨àãîâáï ¯à®â殮­­ë¥ ®¡ê¥ªâë – ª¢ àª-£«î®­­ë¥ áâàã­ë. Ž¡à §®¢ ­¨¥ ­ ¡«î¤ ¥¬ëå  ¤à®­®¢ ¯à®¨á室¨â ­  ¢â®à®¬ íâ ¯¥ ¢ ¯à®æ¥áᥠäà £¬¥­â æ¨¨ íâ¨å áâàã­. ®áª®«ìªã ª¢ àª-£«î®­­ ï áâàã­  ï¥âáï ¯à®â殮­­ë¬ ®¡ê¥ªâ®¬, ¤ î騬 ¯à¨ äà £¬¥­â æ¨¨ ¢ª« ¤ ¢ è¨à®ª¨© ¨­â¥à¢ « ¡ëáâà®â, ¤«ï ¨§ã祭¨ï ᢮©á⢠梥â­ëå áâàã­ (¢ ⮬ ç¨á«¥ ¢®§¬®¦­®á⨠¨å ᫨ﭨï) ¡ë«® ¯à¥¤«®¦¥­® ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ âì â ª ­ §ë¢ ¥¬ë¥ ¤ «ì­¨¥ ª®à५ï樨, ᮮ⢥âáâ¢ãî騥 ¢ë¡®àã ­ ¡«î¤ ¥¬ëå ¨§ à §«¨ç­ëå ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­, à §¤¥«¥­­ëå ¤®áâ â®ç­® ¡®«ì訬 ¨­â¥à¢ «®¬ ¡ëáâà®â. â¨ ¤ «ì­¨¥ ª®à५ï樨 ¢ ­ áâ®ï饥 ¢à¥¬ï ïîâáï ®¤­¨¬ ¨§ £« ¢­ëå ®¡ê¥ªâ®¢ ¨áá«¥¤®¢ ­¨ï ª®««¥ªâ¨¢  ALICE/‘¡ƒ“, ¯à¨ í⮬ ¢¥¤ãâáï ª ª íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¥, â ª ¨ ⥮à¥â¨ç¥áª¨¥ ¨áá«¥¤®¢ ­¨ï B. Alessandro, et al. (ALICE Collaboration) (2006).

’¥®à¥â¨ç¥áª®¥ ¨§ã祭¨¥ ¤ «ì­¨å ª®à५ï権 ¢¥¤¥âáï á ¯®¬®éìî ¬¥â®¤  Œ®­â¥-Š à«® ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2007a); Vechernin and Kolevatov (2007b), ࠧࠡ®â ­ë  «£®à¨â¬ë ‚. ‚. ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, ˆ. €. ‹ ª®¬®¢, €. Œ. ã窮¢ (2010), ®¯¨á뢠î騥 ¯à®â®­-¯à®â®­­ë¥ á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ï ¢ à ¬ª å ª®­æ¥¯æ¨¨ ¡¥áª®­¥ç­ëå ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥ áâàã­. Ž¤­ ª®, ¤«ï ¡®«¥¥ ª®à४⭮£® ®¯¨á ­¨ï â ª¨å å à ªâ¥à¨á⨪, ª ª ª®à५ï樨, áãé¥á⢥­­®, ¢ ç áâ­®áâ¨, ¬®¤¥«¨à®¢ âì íªáª«î§¨¢­ë¥ ¯ àâ®­­ë¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨ï, â ª¦¥ ª ª ¨ ®á®¡¥­­®á⨠®¡à §®¢ ­¨ï 梥â­ëå áâàã­, ¢ ⮬ ç¨á«¥ á«¨ï­¨ï ¢ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®© ¯«®áª®á⨠Braun and Pajares (2000); Armesto et al. (1996). ‚ á¢ï§¨ á í⨬ 楫ìî ­ áâ®ï饩 à ¡®âë ï¥âáï ¬®¤¥«¨à®¢ ­¨¥ íªáª«î§¨¢­ëå ¯ àâ®­­ëå à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨©,   â ª¦¥ ¨áá«¥¤®¢ ­¨¥ ¯à®â®­-¯à®â®­­ëå á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© ¢ à ¬ª å ¬®¤¥«¨, ãç¨â뢠î饩 ª®­¥ç­ãî ¤«¨­ã ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥ ¨ íä䥪âë á«¨ï­¨ï ª¢ àª-£«î­­ëå áâàã­.

Ii ªáª«î§¨¢­ë¥ ¯ àâ®­­ë¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨ï

à¨ ®¯¨á ­¨¨ ஦¤¥­¨ï ç áâ¨æ ¢ à ¬ª å ¯ àâ®­­®-áâàã­­ëå ¬®¤¥«¥© ®¡ëç­® ¨á¯®«ì§ãîâáï Kaidalov and Piskunova (1986); Arakelyan et al. (2002) ¨­ª«î§¨¢­ë¥ ¯ àâ®­­ë¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨ï ¯® ¤®«¥ ¯à®¤®«ì­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  . Ž¤­ ª® ­¥¯®á।á⢥­­®¥ ¯à¨¬¥­¥­¨¥ ¤ ­­®£® ¯®¤å®¤  ¢áâà¥ç ¥âáï á âà㤭®áâﬨ ¯à¨ ¨§ã祭¨¨ ª®à५ï樮­­ëå ¥­¨© ¨, ¢ ç áâ­®áâ¨, ¯®áâ஥­¨¨ ¬®­â¥-ª à«®¢áª¨å ¬®¤¥«¥©, ¯®áª®«ìªã ¢ ¤ ­­®¬ á«ãç ¥ ­¥®¡å®¤¨¬® ¨¬¥âì ¨­ä®à¬ æ¨î ® ⮬, ª ª ¯ àâ®­ë à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­ë ᮢ¬¥áâ­®, â. ¥. ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ âì íªáª«î§¨¢­®¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥. „«ï ¯®áâ஥­¨ï íªáª«î§¨¢­®£® ¯ àâ®­­®£® à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨ï ¯® ¤®«ï¬ ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¬ë ¨á室¨¬ ¨§ ⮣®, çâ® ­¥§ ¢¨á¨¬®áâì ¯ àâ®­®¢ ®£à ­¨ç¥­  ⮫쪮 ¢ë¯®«­¥­¨¥¬ § ª®­  á®åà ­¥­¨ï í­¥à£¨¨-¨¬¯ã«ìá , á«¥¤®¢ â¥«ì­®, ®­® ¨¬¥¥â ä ªâ®à¨§®¢ ­­ë© ¢¨¤ Aurenche et al. (1984):

(1)

‡¤¥áì – ¤®«¨ ¯à®¤®«ì­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¯ àâ®­®¢, ¯à¨ í⮬ , £¤¥ – ç¨á«® ¯ à (¬®àáª¨å ª¢ àª- ­â¨ª¢ àª «¨¡® ¢ «¥­â­ ï ¯ à  ª¢ àª-¤¨ª¢ àª), ¢å®¤ïé¨å ¢ á®áâ ¢ ¯à®â®­ . Œ­®¦¨â¥«¨ ®¯à¥¤¥«ïîâáï ¨§ ᮮ⢥âáâ¢¨ï ¨­ª«î§¨¢­¬ áâàãªâãà­ë¬ äã­ªæ¨ï¬, ¨¬¥î騬 ¢¨¤ Kaidalov and Piskunova (1986); Arakelyan et al. (2002):

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

à¨ í⮬ ¯à¥¤¯®« £ ¥âáï, çâ® ¯à¨ ¬®à᪨¥ ª¢ àª¨ ¨  ­â¨ª¢ àª¨ ¨¬¥îâ â ª®¥ ¦¥ ¨­ª«î§¨¢­®¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥, çâ® ¨ ¢ «¥­â­ë¥ ª¢ àª¨. ‚ ᮡë⨩ ¤¨ª¢ àª ¨¬¥¥â ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨î ud, ¢ uu.

‘®®â¢¥âáâ¢ãî饥 íªáª«î§¨¢­®¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥ ¤«ï ¯à®¨§¢®«ì­®£® ç¨á«  ª¢ àª- ­â¨ª¢ àª®¢ëå ¯ à ¨¬¥¥â ¢¨¤

(6)

£¤¥ ¢ «¥­â­ë© ª¢ àª ¨¬¥¥â ­®¬¥à , ¤¨ª¢ àª – ,   ®áâ «ì­ë¥ ­®¬¥à  ¯à¨­ ¤«¥¦ â ¬®à᪨¬ ª¢ àª ¬ ¨  ­â¨ª¢ àª ¬. (ud-¤¨ª¢ àª), (uu-¤¨ª¢ àª). ”®à¬ã«ë (2) – (5) ¬®¦­® ¯®«ãç¨âì ¨§ (6) ¯ã⥬ ¨­â¥£à¨à®¢ ­¨ï ¯® ç á⨠¯¥à¥¬¥­­ëå.

„«ï £¥­¥à æ¨¨ á«ãç ©­ëå ¢¥«¨ç¨­ (6) á ãç¥â®¬ ¤¥«ìâ -ä㭪樨 ­¥®¡å®¤¨¬® ¯à¨¬¥­ïâì ®á®¡ë¥ ¬¥â®¤ë. Ž¤­¨¬ ¨§ ­ ¨¡®«¥¥ ®¡é¥ã¯®âॡ¨¬ëå ¨ ã­¨¢¥àá «ì­ëå ï¥âáï ¬¥â®¤ ¥©¬ ­  Bopp and Aurenche (1982), ®¤­ ª® ®­ ­¥íä䥪⨢¥­ ¯à¨ ¡®«ì讬 ç¨á«¥ ¯¥à¥¬¥­­ëå. Ÿ¢­ë© ¢¨¤ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨ï ¯®§¢®«ï¥â §­ ç¨â¥«ì­® ¯®¢ëá¨âì íä䥪⨢­®áâì £¥­¥à æ¨¨. ‘¤¥« ¥¬ § ¬¥­ã . ’®£¤  ¢ëà ¦¥­¨¥ (6) ¤«ï ¯«®â­®á⨠à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨ï ¯à¨¬¥â ¡®«¥¥ ¯à®á⮩ ¢¨¤:

à®¨§¢¥¤¥¬ ¥é¥ ®¤­ã § ¬¥­ã: , . ’®£¤

(7)

„ ­­ ï ä®à¬ã«  ®§­ ç ¥â, çâ® ¯®¤ç¨­ï¥âáï ¡¥â -à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨î,   à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­ë à ¢­®¬¥à­® ­  ¥¤¨­¨ç­®© áä¥à¥. ãáâì – áâ ­¤ àâ­ë¥ ­®à¬ «ì­® à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­­ë¥ á«ãç ©­ë¥ ¢¥«¨ç¨­ë,   – à ¢­®¬¥à­® à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­  ­  ®â१ª¥ . , ¡ã¤ãâ 㤮¢«¥â¢®àïâì ¨á室­®¬ã à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨î. ‡¤¥áì – ®¡à â­ ï ॣã«ïਧ®¢ ­­ ï ­¥¯®«­ ï ¡¥â -äã­ªæ¨ï. Ž¯¨á ­­ë© ¬¥â®¤ ¯®§¢®«ï¥â ®áãé¥á⢫ïâì £¥­¥à æ¨î ¤®«¥© ¨¬¯ã«ìᮢ ª¢ àª®¢ §  ¢à¥¬ï, «¨­¥©­® à áâã饥 ¯à¨ 㢥«¨ç¥­¨¨ .

„«ï ¯ àâ®­­®© ¯«®â­®á⨠¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà  ¬ë ¨á¯®«ì§ã¥¬ £ ãáᮢ® à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥ ‚. ‚. ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, ˆ. €. ‹ ª®¬®¢, €. Œ. ã窮¢ (2010):

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‡¤¥áì – ¤¢ã¬¥à­ë© ¢¥ªâ®à ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ëå ª®®à¤¨­ â ¯ àâ®­ .  à ¬¥âà á¢ï§ ­ á® á।­¥ª¢ ¤à â¨ç­ë¬ à ¤¨ãᮬ ¯à®â®­ : .

à¨ £¥­¥à æ¨¨ ¯®«®¦¥­¨© ¯ àâ®­®¢ ¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà  ­¥«ì§ï áç¨â âì ¯®«®¦¥­¨ï ¢á¥å ¯ àâ®­®¢ ­¥§ ¢¨á¨¬ë¬¨, ¯®áª®«ìªã ­¥®¡å®¤¨¬® ãç¥áâì, çâ® ¢ ª ¦¤®¬ ᮡë⨨ 業âà ¬ áá ¯à®â®­  ¤®«¦¥­ ᮢ¯ ¤ âì á ¥£® 業â஬, ®¯à¥¤¥«ï¥¬ë¬ ä®à¬ã«®© (8):

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„ ­­®¥ ãá«®¢¨¥ ¬®¦­® á¢ï§ âì á âॡ®¢ ­¨¥¬ á®åà ­¥­¨ï ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®© ç á⨠¢¥ªâ®à  «®à¥­æ¥¢  ¬®¬¥­â , â® ¥áâì ᮡ«î¤¥­¨ï ५ï⨢¨á⪮£® § ª®­  ¤¢¨¦¥­¨ï 業âà  ¬ áá ¢® ¢à¥¬ï í¢®«î樨 ¯à®â®­ , ¯à¥¤è¥áâ¢ãî饩 á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨î á ¤à㣨¬ ¯à®â®­®¬. „¥©á⢨⥫쭮, á ãç¥â®¬ ⮣®, çâ® á㬬 à­ë© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá ¯ àâ®­®¢ à ¢¥­ ­ã«î, ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ ï ç áâì ¢¥ªâ®à  «®à¥­æ¥¢  ¬®¬¥­â 

à¨ ã«ìâà à¥«ï⨢¨áâ᪨å í­¥à£¨ïå (9) íª¢¨¢ «¥­â­®

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¥¯®á।á⢥­­ë¬ á«¥¤á⢨¥¬ ¤ ­­®£® ãá«®¢¨ï ï¥âáï â®, çâ® ¢ á।­¥¬ ¡®«¥¥ â殮«ë© ¤¨ª¢ àª ­ å®¤¨âáï ¡«¨¦¥ ª 業âàã,   ¬®à᪨¥ ª¢ àª- ­â¨ª¢ àª®¢ë¥ ¯ àë ®¡à §ãîâáï ­  ¯¥à¨ä¥à¨¨. ‘⮨⠮⬥â¨âì, çâ® ª  ­ «®£¨ç­®¬ã ¢ë¢®¤ã ¯à¨è«¨  ¢â®àë à ¡®âë distmult (2004),  ­ «¨§¨àãï íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¥ ¤ ­­ë¥.

‚ ¨â®£¥ íªáª«î§¨¢­®¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥ ª®®à¤¨­ â ¯ àâ®­®¢ ¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà  ¤®«¦­® 㤮¢«¥â¢®àïâì á«¥¤ãî騬 âॡ®¢ ­¨ï¬:

  1. 業âà ¬ áá ¯ àâ®­®¢ ¯®ª®¨âáï, ¢ë¯®«­¥­® ¢ ª ¦¤®¬ ᮡë⨨;

  2. ¨­ª«î§¨¢­®¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥ ª ¦¤®£® ¯ àâ®­  ï¥âáï £ ãáᮢë¬;

  3. ­®à¬¨à®¢ª :

ƒ¥­¥à æ¨ï ª®®à¤¨­ â ¯ àâ®­®¢ ¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà  ¯à®¨á室¨â á«¥¤ãî騬 ®¡à §®¬:

  1. ä®à¬¨àã¥âáï ­¥§ ¢¨á¨¬ëå áâ ­¤ àâ­ëå £ ãáᮢëå ¢¥«¨ç¨­

  2. ¢ëç¨á«ïîâáï ª®®à¤¨­ âë 業âà  ¬ áá:

  3. ¯à®¨§¢®¤¨âáï ᤢ¨£:

  4. ¬ áèâ ¡¨à®¢ ­¨¥ á ¯®áâ®ï­­ë¬ ª®íää¨æ¨¥­â®¬:

®«ã祭­ë¥ ¢¥«¨ç¨­ë ïîâáï ª®®à¤¨­ â ¬¨ ¯ àâ®­®¢.

Žáâ ­®¢¨¬áï ¯®¤à®¡­¥¥ ­  ¢ëç¨á«¥­¨¨ ¢¥«¨ç¨­ë (ª®­áâ ­âë, § ¢¨áï饩 ⮫쪮 ®â ª®«¨ç¥á⢠ ¯ àâ®­®¢ ¨ ®â ⨯  ¤¨ª¢ àª ) ¨§ ãá«®¢¨ï ­®à¬¨à®¢ª¨. Š®®à¤¨­ âë ¤«ï ª¢ àª  ¨ ¤«ï ¤¨ª¢ àª  ¤® ¬ áèâ ¡¨à®¢ ­¨ï § ¤ îâáï á«¥¤ãî騬 ®¡à §®¬:

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®¤áç¨â ¥¬ ¤¨á¯¥àᨨ, ãç¨âë¢ ï ­¥§ ¢¨á¨¬®áâì ¢¥«¨ç¨­ ¨ :

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„«ï ­ å®¦¤¥­¨ï ¢¥«¨ç¨­ë ¯®¤áâ ¢¨¬ ¢ ãá«®¢¨¥ ­®à¬¨à®¢ª¨,   â ª¦¥ ãç⥬, çâ® ¢ ¯à®â®­¥ ®¤¨­ ¤¨ª¢ àª ¨ ª¢ àª®¢ (¨  ­â¨ª¢ àª®¢). ’®£¤  ãà ¢­¥­¨¥ ¤«ï ­ å®¦¤¥­¨ï ¯à¨¬¥â ¢¨¤

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Ÿ¢­ë¥ ¢ëà ¦¥­¨ï ¤«ï (13), (14) ¯®«ãç îâáï ¯ã⥬ ãá।­¥­¨ï c ¯®¬®éìî ¨­ª«î§¨¢­ëå à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨© (2) – (5),   ¯®á«¥¤ãîé ï ¯®¤áâ ­®¢ª  ¢ (15) ¤ ¥â ®ª®­ç â¥«ì­®¥ ¢ëà ¦¥­¨¥ ¤«ï :

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‡¤¥áì ®¡®§­ ç¥­  ¢¥«¨ç¨­  ¤«ï ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨¨ ¤¨ª¢ àª  , – ¤«ï ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨¨ ¤¨ª¢ àª  .

Iii Ž¯¨á ­¨¥ ¬®¤¥«¨

iii.1 –¢¥â­ë¥ ¤¨¯®«¨

„«ï ä®à¬ã«¨à®¢ª¨ ¬®¤¥«¨ ­¥ã¯àã£¨å ¯à®â®­-¯à®â®­­ëå á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© ¬ë ¯à¥¤¯®« £ ¥¬, çâ® í«¥¬¥­â à­®¥ á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨¥ ¯ àâ®­®¢ ॠ«¨§ã¥âáï ª ª ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨¥ ¤¢ãå 梥⮢ëå ¤¨¯®«¥©, á®áâ®ïé¨å ¨§ ¢ «¥­â­®£® ª¢ àª  ¨ ¤¨ª¢ àª , «¨¡® ¨§ ª¢ àª- ­â¨ª¢ àª®¢®© ¯ àë. €¬¯«¨â㤠 ¢¥à®ïâ­®á⨠¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©áâ¢¨ï ¤¢ãå ¤¨¯®«¥© á ª®®à¤¨­ â ¬¨ ¨ ¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà  ¨¬¥¥â á«¥¤ãî騩 ¢¨¤ Gustafson (2009):

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‚ à ¬ª å ¯à¨¡«¨¦¥­¨ï í©ª®­ «  ¢¥à®ïâ­®áâì ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©áâ¢¨ï ¤¢ãå ¤¨¯®«¥©

(18)

®«­ ï ¢¥à®ïâ­®áâì ­¥ã¯à㣮£® ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©áâ¢¨ï ¤¢ãå ¯à®â®­®¢ , £¤¥ á㬬¨à®¢ ­¨¥ ¢¥¤¥âáï ¯® ¢á¥¬ ¤¨¯®«ï¬. ‚¥«¨ç¨­  ¨¬¥¥â á¬ëá« íä䥪⨢­®© ª®­áâ ­âë ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨ï, ¨ ¥¥ §­ ç¥­¨¥ ¨á¯®«ì§ã¥âáï ª ª ¯®¤£®­®ç­ë© ¯ à ¬¥âà ¤«ï ¡®«¥¥ ¯à ¢¨«ì­®£® ®¯¨á ­¨ï íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ëå ¤ ­­ëå, ¯à¨ç¥¬ ¯à¥¤¯®« £ ¥âáï, çâ® ®­  ­¥ § ¢¨á¨â ­¨ ®â í­¥à£¨¨, ­¨ ®â ª®«¨ç¥á⢠ ª¢ àª- ­â¨ª¢ àª®¢ëå ¯ à ¢ ¯à®â®­¥.

‚«¨ï­¨¥ ª®­ä ©­¬¥­â  ¬®¦¥â ¡ëâì ãç⥭® á«¥¤ãî騬 ®¡à §®¬ Flensburg et al. (2009); Gustafson (2009): § ¬¥­¨âì ªã«®­®¢áª¨© ¯à®¯ £ â®à , ª®â®àë© ¯®«ãç ¥âáï ¨§ (17), ­  ᮮ⢥âáâ¢ãî騩 ¯à®¯ £ â®à žª ¢ë: , £¤¥ – å à ªâ¥à­ë© ¬ áèâ ¡ ª®­ä ©­¬¥­â . ’®£¤  ä®à¬ã«  (17) ¯à¨¬¥â ¢¨¤:

‘®£« á­® ®æ¥­ª ¬ Braun and Vechernin (2004), ®â­®è¥­¨¥ ª¢ ¤à â®¢ à ¤¨ãᮢ ¯à®â®­  ¨  ¤à®­  ¤®«¦­ë ¡ëâì ¯®à浪  . ‚ í⮬ á«ãç ¥ ä¬. ®áª®«ìªã ¯à¨ , â® ¢ í⮬ ¯à¥¤¥«ì­®¬ á«ãç ¥ ¬ë á­®¢  ¢®§¢à é ¥¬áï ª ¨á室­®© ä®à¬ã«¥ (17). à¨ ¬®¤¨ä¨æ¨à®¢ ­­ ï äã­ªæ¨ï ¥áá¥«ï ¢¥¤¥â ᥡï á«¥¤ãî騬 ®¡à §®¬:

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çâ® ®¡¥á¯¥ç¨¢ ¥â íªá¯®­¥­æ¨ «ì­®¥ ¯ ¤¥­¨¥ ¢¥à®ïâ­®á⨠á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ï ¤¢ãå ¯à®â®­®¢ ¯à¨ ¡®«ì讬 ¯à¨æ¥«ì­®¬ ¯ à ¬¥âà¥.

iii.2 ‚ëç¨á«¥­¨¥ ­ ¡«î¤ ¥¬ëå ¢¥«¨ç¨­

‚¥à®ïâ­®á⨠á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© ¤¨¯®«¥©, ¯®«ã祭­ë¥ à ­¥¥, ¨á¯®«ì§ãîâáï ¤«ï ¯®áâ஥­¨ï ¬ âà¨æë á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨©. Š ¦¤ë© ¤¨¯®«ì ¬®¦¥â ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢮¢ âì ⮫쪮 á ®¤­¨¬ ¤à㣨¬ ¤¨¯®«¥¬, ¯®í⮬㠧 ¯®«­¥­¨¥ ¬ âà¨æë á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© ­ ç¨­ ¥âáï á ¢ «¥­â­ëå ¤¨¯®«¥©.

‘«¥¤ãî騬 íâ ¯®¬ ï¥âáï £¥­¥à æ¨ï áâàã­ ¢ ¯à®áâà ­á⢥ ¡ëáâà®âë. ‚¥«¨ç¨­ë (ª®­æë áâàã­ë) ®¯à¥¤¥«ïîâáï ¨§ ª¨­¥¬ â¨ç¥áª®£® ãá«®¢¨ï à á¯ ¤  áâàã­ë ⮫쪮 ­  ¤¢¥ ç áâ¨æë á® á।­¨¬ ƒí‚ ¨ ¬ áá ¬¨ ƒí‚ (¤«ï ¯¨®­ , ¥á«¨ ­  ª®­æ¥ áâàã­ë ª¢ àª ¨«¨  ­â¨ª¢ àª) ¨«¨ ƒí‚ (¤«ï ­ãª«®­ , ¥á«¨ ­  ª®­æ¥ áâàã­ë ¤¨ª¢ àª). ‘«¨èª®¬ ª®à®âª¨¥ áâàã­ë ¨áª«îç îâáï ¨§ à áᬮâ७¨ï âॡ®¢ ­¨¥¬, ç⮡ë á㬬  ¬ áá ஦¤¥­­ëå ç áâ¨æ ¡ë«  ¬¥­ìè¥, 祬 ¬ áá  áâàã­ë, à ¢­ ï , £¤¥ – ¤®«¨ ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¯ àâ®­®¢ ­  ª®­æ å áâàã­ë. ®¯¥à¥ç­ë¥ ª®®à¤¨­ âë 業âà  áâàã­ë ¯®« £ îâáï à ¢­ë¬¨ á।­¥¬ã  à¨ä¬¥â¨ç¥áª®¬ã ᮮ⢥âáâ¢ãîé¨å ª®®à¤¨­ â ¯ àâ®­®¢ ­  ¥¥ ª®­æ å.

„«ï ¢ëç¨á«¥­¨ï à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨ï ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®á⨠¨ á।­¥£® ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥ ¯à¥¤¯®« £ ¥âáï, çâ® ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ­  ¥¤¨­¨æã ¡ëáâà®âë () ¨ á।­¨© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá () ®â ®¤­®© áâàã­ë 䨪á¨à®¢ ­ë ¨ ­¥ § ¢¨áïâ ­¨ ®â í­¥à£¨¨, ­¨ ®â ¤àã£¨å ¯ à ¬¥â஢ ¬®¤¥«¨. à¨ ¡®«ì襬 ª®«¨ç¥á⢥ áâàã­ ¯à®¨á室¨â ¨å ¯¥à¥ªàë⨥ ¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà , çâ® ¯à¨¢®¤¨â ª ­¥®¡å®¤¨¬®á⨠ãç¥â  ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©áâ¢¨ï ¬¥¦¤ã ­¨¬¨. „ ­­®¥ ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨¥ ¬®¦¥â ¡ëâì ¢ë¯®«­¥­® ¢ ¬®¤¥«¨, ¯à¨­¨¬ î饩 ¢® ¢­¨¬ ­¨¥ íä䥪âë ᫨ﭨï áâàã­ Braun and Pajares (2000).

„«ï ­ å®¦¤¥­¨ï ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®á⨠¨ á।­¥£® ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá , á ãç¥â®¬ íää¥ªâ  á«¨ï­¨ï 梥â­ëå áâàã­ ¡ë« ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ ­ ¢ à¨ ­â á «®ª «ì­ë¬ ᫨ﭨ¥¬ (overlaps) ¢ à ¬ª å ¤¨áªà¥â­®© ¬®¤¥«¨, ¯à¥¤«®¦¥­­®© ¢ ‚. ‚. ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, . ‘. Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2004a, b); M. A. Braun, R. S. Kolevatov, C. Pajares, V. V. Vechernin (2004). ‚ í⮬ á«ãç ¥ ᮣ« á­® Braun and Pajares (2000) ¯à¥¤¯®« £ ¥âáï, çâ® á।­ïï ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ­  ¥¤¨­¨æã ¡ëáâà®âë ¨ á।­¨© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá § à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ, ¨§«ã祭­ëå ¨§ ®¡« á⨠¯¥à¥ªàëâ¨ï áâàã­, ®¯¨á뢠îâáï á«¥¤ãî騬¨ ¢ëà ¦¥­¨ï¬¨:

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‡¤¥áì – ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ ï ¯«®é ¤ì ®¡« áâ¨, £¤¥ ¯à®¨§®è«® ¯¥à¥ªàë⨥ 梥â­ëå áâàã­, – ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ ï ¯«®é ¤ì áâàã­ë, ¨ – á।­ïï ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ­  ¥¤¨­¨æã ¡ëáâà®âë ¨ á।­¨© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá § à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ, ª®£¤  ®­¨ ஦¤ îâáï ®â à á¯ ¤  ®¤¨­®ç­®© áâàã­ë. ‚ ¤¨áªà¥â­®© ¬®¤¥«¨ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ ï ¯«®áª®áâì § ¬¥­ï¥âáï à¥è¥âª®© á ¯«®é ¤ìî ï祩ª¨, à ¢­®© ¯«®é ¤¨ áâàã­ë, ¨ áâàã­ë áç¨â îâáï ᫨¢è¨¬¨áï, ¥á«¨ ¨å 業âàë ¯®¯ ¤ îâ ¢ ®¤­ã ¨ âã ¦¥ ï祩ªã. „«ï ãç¥â  ª®­¥ç­®© ¤«¨­ë áâàã­ ª ¦¤ ï ï祩ª  ¤¥«¨âáï ­  ¨­â¥à¢ «ë ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥ â ª, çâ®¡ë ª®«¨ç¥á⢮ áâàã­ ¢ ª ¦¤®¬ ¨­â¥à¢ «¥ ¡ë«® ¯®áâ®ï­­ë¬. ®á«¥ í⮣® à áç¥âë ¯à®¨§¢®¤ïâáï á ¤®¯®«­¨â¥«ì­ë¬ á㬬¨à®¢ ­¨¥¬ ¯® ¢á¥¬ ¡ëáâà®â­ë¬ ¨­â¥à¢ « ¬.

„«ï ¢ëç¨á«¥­¨ï ¨ ª®à५ï樮­­ëå ä㭪権 ¤«ï ¤ «ì­¨å (á à §­¥á¥­­ë¬¨ ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥ ®ª­ ¬¨ ¨ ) ¨á¯®«ì§ã¥âáï ¬¥â®¤ ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2007a); ‚. ‚. ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, ˆ. €. ‹ ª®¬®¢, €. Œ. ã窮¢ (2010), ¢ ª®â®à®¬ ¤«ï ª ¦¤®© áâàã­­®© ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨¨, â.¥. ¤«ï ª ¦¤®£® ᮡëâ¨ï, ᣥ­¥à¨à®¢ ­­®£® ¬¥â®¤®¬ Œ®­â¥-Š à«®, ¢ëç¨á«ï¥âáï á।­ïï ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ¨ á।­¨© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá á ¯®á«¥¤ãî騬 ãá।­¥­¨¥¬ ¯® ¢á¥¬ ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨ï¬:

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£¤¥ – ¢¥à®ïâ­®áâì ॠ«¨§ æ¨¨ ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨¨ . ‚ ª ç¥á⢥ ¢¥à®ïâ­®á⨠¨¬¥âì ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ¢ ¯¥à¥¤­¥¬ ®ª­¥ ¯à¨ ¤ ­­®© ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨¨, ª ª ¨ ¢ à ¡®â å ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2007a); ‚. ‚. ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, ˆ. €. ‹ ª®¬®¢, €. Œ. ã窮¢ (2010), ¨á¯®«ì§ã¥âáï à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥ ã áá®­  á® á।­¨¬ §­ ç¥­¨¥¬, à ¢­ë¬ .

®«­®¥ ­¥ã¯à㣮¥ á¥ç¥­¨¥ ¢ ­ áâ®ï饩 à ¡®â¥ ¢ëç¨á«ï¥âáï ¤¢ã¬ï ᯮᮡ ¬¨:

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£¤¥ – ¯«®é ¤ì ®¡« á⨠¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà , ¢ ª®â®à®© £¥­¥à¨àãîâáï ¯à®â®­ë, – ¯®«­ ï ¢¥à®ïâ­®áâì ­¥ã¯à㣮£® á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ï ¤¢ãå ¯à®â®­®¢ ¢ ª ¦¤®¬ ᮡë⨨, – ®¡é¥¥ ç¨á«® ᨬã«ï権, – ç¨á«® ᨬã«ï権, ¢ ª®â®àëå ¡ë«® å®âï ¡ë ®¤­® á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨¥ á ®¡à §®¢ ­¨¥¬ áâàã­; á㬬¨à®¢ ­¨¥ ¢¥¤¥âáï ¯® ¢á¥¬ ᨬã«ïæ¨ï¬. ‚â®à®© ᯮᮡ ¯à¥¤áâ ¢«ï¥â ᮡ®© ®¡ëç­ë© ¬¥â®¤ ¢ ¬®­â¥-ª à«®¢áª¨å ᨬã«ïæ¨ïå, ¢ â® ¢à¥¬ï ª ª ¯¥à¢ë© ï¥âáï á«¥¤á⢨¥¬ ¬®¤¥«¨ 梥⮢ëå ¤¨¯®«¥©. ®áª®«ìªã ®¡¥ ä®à¬ã«ë ¤ îâ ®¤¨­ ¨ â®â ¦¥ १ã«ìâ â, ¯¥à¢ë© ᯮᮡ ï¥âáï ®á­®¢­ë¬, ¢â®à®© ¨á¯®«ì§ã¥âáï ¤«ï ª®­â஫ï.

Iv Œ®­â¥-Š à«®¢áª¨©  «£®à¨â¬

Œ®¤¥«¨à®¢ ­¨¥ ¯à®æ¥áá  pp-á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ï ­ ç¨­ ¥âáï á £¥­¥à æ¨¨ ª®®à¤¨­ â 業â஢ ¯à®â®­®¢ ¢ ¯«®áª®á⨠¯à¨æ¥«ì­®£® ¯ à ¬¥âà  á à ¢­®¬¥à­ë¬ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨¥¬ ¢ ª¢ ¤à â¥ ¯«®é ¤ìî (minimum bias ᨬã«ï樨), ¯à¨ç¥¬ ¢¥«¨ç¨­  ¢ë¡¨à ¥âáï ¬­®£® ¡®«ìè¥, 祬 å à ªâ¥à­ë© à ¤¨ãá ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©áâ¢¨ï ¯à®â®­®¢, â ª, çâ®¡ë ¯à¨ ¥¥ ¤ «ì­¥©è¥¬ 㢥«¨ç¥­¨¨ १ã«ìâ âë ®â ­¥¥ ­¥ § ¢¨á¥«¨.

„ «¥¥ £¥­¥à¨àãîâáï ç¨á«® ¤¨¯®«¥© ¤«ï ª ¦¤®£® ¯à®â®­  (, ) ᮣ« á­® à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨î ã áá®­  á ¯ à ¬¥â஬ ; á«ãç © ®â¡à á뢠¥âáï, ¯®áª®«ìªã ¤¨¯®«ì ¨§ ¢ «¥­â­ëå ¤¨ª¢ àª  ¨ ª¢ àª  ®¡ï§ â¥«ì­® ¤®«¦¥­ ¯à¨áãâá⢮¢ âì. Š®«¨ç¥á⢮ ¯ àâ®­®¢ () ¯à¨­¨¬ ¥âáï à ¢­ë¬ 㤢®¥­­®¬ã ç¨á«ã ¤¨¯®«¥©. „¨ª¢ àªã ¯à¨¯¨á뢠¥âáï ⨯ á ¢¥à®ïâ­®áâìî ¨«¨ – á ¢¥à®ïâ­®áâìî .

‡ â¥¬ £¥­¥à¨àãîâáï ¤®«¨ ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¯ àâ®­®¢ (6) ¨ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë¥ ª®®à¤¨­ âë.  à ¬¥âà ¢ë¡¨à ¥âáï à ¢­ë¬ ä¬, ¨áå®¤ï ¨§ á।­¥ª¢ ¤à â¨ç­®£® à ¤¨ãá  ¯à®â®­  ä¬. ˆ§ ¯ à ª¢ àª- ­â¨ª¢ àª ¨ ª¢ àª-¤¨ª¢ àª áâநâáï ­ ¡®à ¤¨¯®«¥© ¤«ï ª ¦¤®£® ¯à®â®­  ¨ £¥­¥à¨àã¥âáï ¬ âà¨æ  ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨ï á ¯®¬®éìî ¢¥à®ïâ­®á⥩ (18, III.1). ‚ëç¨á«ï¥âáï ¯®«­ ï ¢¥à®ïâ­®áâì ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨ï , ª®â®à ï ¨á¯®«ì§ã¥âáï ¤«ï ¯®¤áç¥â  á¥ç¥­¨ï.

® ¬ âà¨æ¥ á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© áâநâáï ­ ¡®à áâàã­, ¨ á ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ ­¨¥¬ ¤¨áªà¥â­®£®  «£®à¨â¬  á«¨ï­¨ï ¯à®¨§¢®¤¨âáï ¢ëç¨á«¥­¨¥ à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨© ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®á⨠¨ á।­¥£® ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥, ¯® ª®â®àë¬ à ááç¨â뢠îâáï ¢¥«¨ç¨­ë ¤ «ì­¨å ª®à५ï権,   â ª¦¥ á।­ïï ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ¨ á।­¨© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá ¤«ï § ¤ ­­ëå ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­.

V à®æ¥¤ãà  ä¨ªá æ¨¨ ¯ à ¬¥â஢

®áâ ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®á⨠¨ á¥ç¥­¨ï ¢ ¤ ­­®© ¬®¤¥«¨ ®¡¥á¯¥ç¨¢ ¥âáï §  áç¥â 㢥«¨ç¥­¨ï ª®«¨ç¥á⢠ ª¢ àª- ­â¨ª¢ àª®¢ëå ¯ à (¯ à ¬¥âà  ). ‚¥«¨ç¨­  䨪á¨àã¥âáï ¨§ íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ëå ¤ ­­ëå ¯® ¯®«­®¬ã ­¥ã¯à㣮¬ã á¥ç¥­¨î P.A. Bolokhov, M.A. Braun, G.A. Feofilov, V.P. Kondratiev, V.V. Vechernin (2002):

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‚ á¢ï§¨ á ⥬, çâ® à áç¥â á¥ç¥­¨ï ¢ à ¬ª å ¤ ­­®© ¬®¤¥«¨ ¯à¨ § ¤ ­­®¬ ­¥ ¨á¯®«ì§ã¥â ¢¥«¨ç¨­ã í­¥à£¨¨, ᨬã«ï樨 ¯à®¢®¤ïâáï ¢ ¤¢  íâ ¯ : ­  ¯¥à¢®¬ ãáâ ­ ¢«¨¢ ¥âáï á¢ï§ì ¨ ,   ­  ¢â®à®¬ ¤«ï § ¤ ­­®© í­¥à£¨¨ ®¯à¥¤¥«ï¥âáï c ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ ­¨¥¬ ä¨â  (25) ¨ ¯à®¢®¤ïâáï ®áâ «ì­ë¥ à áç¥âë.

‚¥«¨ç¨­ë ¨ 䨪á¨àãîâáï ¢ ®¤­®© â®çª¥ ¯à¨ ­¨§ª®© í­¥à£¨¨.

ªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¥ ¤ ­­ë¥ ¤«ï ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®á⨠¨ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¡ë«¨ ¢§ïâë ¨§ à ¡®â Aamodt et al. (2010b); Khachatryan et al. (2010):

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„à㣨¥ ¯ à ¬¥âàë ¬®¤¥«¨ ¢ë¡¨à «¨áì á«¥¤ãî騬 ®¡à §®¬: ¤«ï ä¬ ®â­®è¥­¨¥ ¢ë¡¨à «®áì à ¢­ë¬ ; ª®­áâ ­â  ¢ë¡¨à « áì ¤«ï ­ ¨«ãç襣® ®¯¨á ­¨ï § ¢¨á¨¬®á⨠¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®á⨠®â í­¥à£¨¨.  ¤¨ãá áâàã­ë ä¬ á®®â¢¥âáâ¢ã¥â ®æ¥­ª ¬ Armesto et al. (1996); ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2007a); Vechernin and Kolevatov (2007b); ‚. ‚. ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, . ‘. Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2004a, b); M. A. Braun, R. S. Kolevatov, C. Pajares, V. V. Vechernin (2004), ¯®«ã祭­ë¬ ¯à¨ ®¯¨á ­¨¨ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¨ ¤ «ì­¨å ª®à५ï権 ¢ ï¤à®-拉à­ëå ¢§ ¨¬®¤¥©á⢨ïå.

Vi ®«ã祭­ë¥ १ã«ìâ âë

  à¨á. 1 ¯à¥¤áâ ¢«¥­ë íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¥ ¤ ­­ë¥ ¨ १ã«ìâ âë à áç¥â®¢ á।­¥£® ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¨ ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®á⨠§ à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ ¢ pp-á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå ¯à¨ à §«¨ç­ëå í­¥à£¨ïå ¢ ¬®¤¥«¨ ᮠ᫨ﭨ¥¬ áâàã­ ( ä¬), ¯à¨ í⮬ ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ «¨áì á«¥¤ãî騥 ¯ à ¬¥âàë: , , ƒí‚. ‚¥«¨ç¨­  ¨§¬¥­ï« áì ®â ¤«ï ƒí‚ ¤® ¤«ï ƒí‚ ¨ ¤«ï ƒí‚.

Š ª ¨ ¢ á«ãç ¥ ¡¥§ ᫨ﭨï V. Kovalenko (2010), §  áç¥â ¯®¤¡®à  ¯ à ¬¥â஢ () 㤠¥âáï ¯®«­®áâìî ®¯¨á âì ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì § à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ ¢ è¨à®ª®¬ ¤¨ ¯ §®­¥ í­¥à£¨©, ®¤­ ª® ¯à¨ «î¡®¬ ¨å ࠧ㬭®¬ ¢ë¡®à¥ à ááç¨â ­­ë© à®áâ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ®ª §ë¢ ¥âáï ¡®«¥¥ ¬¥¤«¥­­ë¬, 祬 ­ ¡«î¤ ¥¬ë© ¢ íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â¥.

  à¨á. 2 ¯à¥¤áâ ¢«¥­  -ª®à५ï樮­­ ï äã­ªæ¨ï, à ááç¨â ­­ ï ¤«ï í­¥à£¨¨  ƒí‚ ¤«ï à §¤¥«ì­ëå ®ª®­ , . ¥«¨­¥©­®áâì ª®à५ï樮­­®© ä㭪樨 ¨¬¥¥â ¬¥áâ® ¨ ¢ á«ãç ¥ ®âáãâá⢨ï ᫨ﭨï, ®¤­ ª® ¯à¨ ¢ª«î祭¨¨ ᫨ﭨï áâàã­ ®­  áâ ­®¢¨âáï ᨫ쭥¥. ’ ª®¥ ¯®¢¥¤¥­¨¥ ª®à५ï樮­­®© ä㭪樨 ­ å®¤¨âáï ¢ ᮣ« á¨¨ á à áç¥â ¬¨ ¤«ï ï¤à®-拉à­ëå á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2007a); C. Alt, et al. (NA49 Collab.) and G. Feoilov, R. Kolevatov, V. Kondratiev, P. Naumenko, V. Vehernin (2005).

  à¨á. 3 ¯®ª § ­ë १ã«ìâ âë à áç¥â  -ª®à५ï樮­­®© ä㭪樨 ¤«ï â¥å ¦¥ ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­. „«ï áà ¢­¥­¨ï á íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¬¨ ¤ ­­ë¬¨ ¬ë ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ «¨ . Š ᮦ «¥­¨î, ¯®ª  ¨¬¥îâáï íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¥ ¤ ­­ë¥ ⮫쪮 ® -ª®à५ïæ¨ïå ¢ ®¤­®¬ ¡ëáâà®â­®¬ ®ª­¥, ¨ áà ¢­¥­¨¥ á ¯à¥¤áâ ¢«¥­­ë¬¨ ¤ ­­ë¬¨ ­®á¨â ­¥áª®«ìª® ãá«®¢­ë© å à ªâ¥à. ‚ 楫®¬ ¨¬¥¥âáï ª ç¥á⢥­­®¥ ¢®á¯à®¨§¢¥¤¥­¨¥ ä®à¬ë ª®à५ï樮­­®© ä㭪樨.

„ ­­ë¥ ¯® ¯®«­®¬ã ­¥ã¯à㣮¬ã á¥ç¥­¨î ­¥ ¯à¨¢®¤ïâáï, â ª ª ª íâ  ¢¥«¨ç¨­  ¢á¥£¤  䨪á¨àã¥âáï.

Vii ‡ ª«î祭¨¥

‚ ¤ ­­®© à ¡®â¥ ¯à¥¤«®¦¥­  ¬®¤¥«ì, ®¯¨á뢠îé ï å à ªâ¥à¨á⨪¨ ¯à®â®­-¯à®â®­­ëå á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© ¯à¨ ¢ë᮪¨å í­¥à£¨ïå, ª®â®à ï ¢ª«î砥⠤¥â «ì­®¥ ¬®¤¥«¨à®¢ ­¨¥ ¯ àâ®­­ëå à á¯à¥¤¥«¥­¨©; ᮮ⢥âáâ¢ãî騥 ¬®­â¥-ª à«®¢áª¨¥ ¯à®æ¥¤ãàë ࠧࠡ®â ­ë ¤«ï ¯à®¨§¢®«ì­®£® ç¨á«  ¯ àâ®­®¢ ¢  ¤à®­¥. â® ¯®§¢®«¨«® ¯à¨¬¥­¨âì  «£®à¨â¬ ᫨ﭨï áâàã­ ¢ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®© ¯«®áª®á⨠á ãç¥â®¬ ¨å ª®­¥ç­®© ¯à®â殮­­®á⨠¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥ ¤«ï pp-à áá¥ï­¨ï. ‚ à ¬ª å í⮣® ¬¥å ­¨§¬  ­ ©¤¥­® ¢«¨ï­¨¥ íä䥪⮢ ᫨ﭨï áâàã­ ­  ¤ «ì­¨¥ ¯® ¡ëáâà®â¥ ª®à५ï樨 ¬¥¦¤ã ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâﬨ § à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ,   â ª¦¥ ¬¥¦¤ã ¬­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâìî ¨ á।­¨¬ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë¬ ¨¬¯ã«ìᮬ.

‚ १ã«ìâ â¥ ¯®ª § ­®, çâ® ¯à¨ ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ ­¨¨ ®¡é¥¯à¨­ï⮣® §­ ç¥­¨ï à ¤¨ãá  áâàã­ë ä¬ à ááç¨â ­­ë© à®áâ á।­¥£® ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  á í­¥à£¨¥© ®ª §ë¢ ¥âáï ¬¥­ìè¥ íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­® ­ ¡«î¤ ¥¬®£®. ‚®§¬®¦­®, íâ® á¢ï§ ­® á ⥬, çâ® ­  à®áâ ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá  ¯à¨ ¡®«¥¥ ¢ë᮪¨å í­¥à£¨ïå ­ ç¨­ îâ ®ª §ë¢ âì ¢«¨ï­¨¥ ¨ ¤à㣨¥ ¬¥å ­¨§¬ë, â ª¨¥, ª ª ¢ª« ¤ ¦¥áâª¨å ¯à®æ¥áᮢ. “¢¥«¨ç¥­¨¥ à ¤¨ãá  áâàã­ë ¤® ä¬ ¤®«¦­® ã«ãçè¨âì ª®«¨ç¥á⢥­­®¥ ®¯¨á ­¨¥ 㢥«¨ç¥­¨ï ¯®¯¥à¥ç­®£® ¨¬¯ã«ìá , ®¤­ ª® íâ® ¬®¦¥â ¯à®â¨¢®à¥ç¨âì ¤ ­­ë¬ ¯® ï¤à®-拉à­ë¬ á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ï¬ ‚¥ç¥à­¨­, Š®«¥¢ â®¢ (2007a); Braun and Pajares (2000).

‚ ¤ «ì­¥©è¥¬ ¢ à ¬ª å ¯à¥¤«®¦¥­­®© ¬®¤¥«¨ â ª¦¥ ¯« ­¨àã¥âáï ¨§ãç âì § ¢¨á¨¬®áâì å à ªâ¥à¨á⨪ ®â è¨à¨­ë ¨ ª®­ä¨£ãà æ¨¨ ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­. €«£®à¨â¬ë, ¯à¥¤«®¦¥­­ë¥ ¢ ¤ ­­®© à ¡®â¥, ¬®£ãâ ¡ëâì ¯à¨¬¥­¥­ë ª ®¯¨á ­¨î ­ãª«®­-­ãª«®­­ëå á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© ¯à¨ ¨§ã祭¨¨ á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨© â殮«ëå ¨®­®¢.

€¢â®à ¡« £®¤ à¥­ ‚. ‚. ‚¥ç¥à­¨­ã ¨ ƒ. €. ”¥®ä¨«®¢ã §  ¬­®£®ç¨á«¥­­ë¥ ®¡á㦤¥­¨ï ¨ 業­ë¥ § ¬¥ç ­¨ï.

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russian

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english

MODELLING OF EXCLUSIVE PARTON DISTRIBUTIONS AND LONG-RANGE RAPIDITY CORRELATIONS FOR PP-COLLISIONS AT THE LHC ENERGY.

V. N. Kovalenko

Soft pp interactions are considered in the framework of the phenomenological model with color strings formation. Under the assumption, that the elementary collision is realized as interaction of two color dipoles, the total inelastic cross section and the multiplicity of the charged particles are estimated and used for the parameters fixing. The special attention is given to the modelling of exclusive parton distributions taking into account the energy conservation and fixing the mass center that is necessary for the description of correlations, corresponding Monte Carlo procedures are developed for an arbitrary number of partons in a hadron. The string fusion algorithm in a cross-section plane is developed taking into account the finite rapidity width of strings. In this framework the influence of string fusion effects on long-range correlations of charged particles are estimated. The proposed algorithms are planned to be used for studying of heavy ion collisions. \selectlanguage

russian

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Figure 1: Œ­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ¨ á।­¨© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá § à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ ¢ pp-á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå. ‹¨­¨ï¬¨ ¯®ª § ­ë ä¨âë íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ëå ¤ ­­ëå ¨§ à ¡®â Aamodt et al. (2010b); Khachatryan et al. (2010).
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Figure 2: -ª®à५ï樮­­ ï äã­ªæ¨ï ¢ pp-á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå ¯à¨ í­¥à£¨¨  ƒí‚, ¢ëç¨á«¥­­ ï ¢ ¤ ­­®© à ¡®â¥ ¤«ï ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­ ¨ . Šà¥á⨪ ¬¨ ¯®ª § ­  -ª®à५ïæ¨ï ¡¥§ ãç¥â  íää¥ªâ  á«¨ï­¨ï áâàã­.
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Figure 3: Š®à५ï樮­­ ï äã­ªæ¨ï ¤ «ì­¨å -ª®à५ï権 ¢ -á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå, ¢ëç¨á«¥­­ ï ¢ ¤ ­­®© à ¡®â¥ (á«¥¢ ), ¤«ï ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­ ¨ ; íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¥ ¤ ­­ë¥ (á¯à ¢ ) ¯à¨ í­¥à£¨¨  ƒí‚ Aamodt et al. (2010b). Šà¥á⨪ ¬¨ ¯®ª § ­  -ª®à५ïæ¨ï ¡¥§ ãç¥â  íää¥ªâ  á«¨ï­¨ï áâàã­.
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Figure 1: Œ­®¦¥á⢥­­®áâì ¨ á।­¨© ¯®¯¥à¥ç­ë© ¨¬¯ã«ìá § à殮­­ëå ç áâ¨æ ¢ pp-á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå. ‹¨­¨ï¬¨ ¯®ª § ­ë ä¨âë íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ëå ¤ ­­ëå ¨§ à ¡®â Aamodt et al. (2010b); Khachatryan et al. (2010).
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Figure 2: -ª®à५ï樮­­ ï äã­ªæ¨ï ¢ pp-á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå ¯à¨ í­¥à£¨¨  ƒí‚, ¢ëç¨á«¥­­ ï ¢ ¤ ­­®© à ¡®â¥ ¤«ï ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­ ¨ . Šà¥á⨪ ¬¨ ¯®ª § ­  -ª®à५ïæ¨ï ¡¥§ ãç¥â  íää¥ªâ  á«¨ï­¨ï áâàã­.
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Figure 3: Š®à५ï樮­­ ï äã­ªæ¨ï ¤ «ì­¨å -ª®à५ï権 ¢ -á⮫ª­®¢¥­¨ïå, ¢ëç¨á«¥­­ ï ¢ ¤ ­­®© à ¡®â¥ (á«¥¢ ), ¤«ï ¡ëáâà®â­ëå ®ª®­ ¨ ; íªá¯¥à¨¬¥­â «ì­ë¥ ¤ ­­ë¥ (á¯à ¢ ) ¯à¨ í­¥à£¨¨  ƒí‚ Aamodt et al. (2010b). Šà¥á⨪ ¬¨ ¯®ª § ­  -ª®à५ïæ¨ï ¡¥§ ãç¥â  íää¥ªâ  á«¨ï­¨ï áâàã­.
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