Kernel Based Progressive Distillation for Adder Neural Networks
Adder Neural Networks (ANNs) which only contain additions bring us a new way of developing deep neural networks with low energy consumption. Unfortunately, there is an accuracy drop when replacing all convolution filters by adder filters. The main reason here is the optimization difficulty of ANNs using -norm, in which the estimation of gradient in back propagation is inaccurate. In this paper, we present a novel method for further improving the performance of ANNs without increasing the trainable parameters via a progressive kernel based knowledge distillation (PKKD) method. A convolutional neural network (CNN) with the same architecture is simultaneously initialized and trained as a teacher network, features and weights of ANN and CNN will be transformed to a new space to eliminate the accuracy drop. The similarity is conducted in a higher-dimensional space to disentangle the difference of their distributions using a kernel based method. Finally, the desired ANN is learned based on the information from both the ground-truth and teacher, progressively. The effectiveness of the proposed method for learning ANN with higher performance is then well-verified on several benchmarks. For instance, the ANN-50 trained using the proposed PKKD method obtains a 76.8% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet dataset, which is 0.6% higher than that of the ResNet-50.
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with a large number of learnable parameters and massive multiplications have shown extraordinary performance on computer vision tasks, such as image classification Krizhevsky et al. (2012); Xu et al. (2019a); Liu et al. (2020); Kiryo et al. (2017); Ishida et al. (2020), image generation Guo et al. (2019); Gong et al. (2019), object detection Ren et al. (2015), semantic segmentation Noh et al. (2015), low-level image tasks Tai et al. (2017); Zhao et al. (2020); Timofte et al. (2017); Song et al. (2020); Wang et al. (2015); Yu et al. (2018), etc However, the huge energy consumption brought by these multiplications limits the deployment of CNNs on portable devices such as cell phones and video cameras. Thus, the recent research on deep learning tends to explore efficient method for reducing the computational costs required by convolutional neural networks Zhuang et al. (2018); Chen et al. (2019b); Tang et al. (2020); Xu et al. (2019b).
There are several existing algorithms presented to derive computational-efficient deep neural networks. For example, weight pruning methods Luo et al. (2017); Zhuang et al. (2018); Lin et al. (2019, 2018); Liu et al. (2019) removed unimportant parameters or filters from a pre-trained neural network with negligible loss of accuracy. Knowledge Distillation (KD) methods Hinton et al. (2015); Chen et al. (2020, 2019a) directly learned a student model by imitating the output distribution of a teacher model. Tensor decomposition methods Rabanser et al. (2017); Yu et al. (2017); Yang et al. (2019b) decomposed the model tensor into several low-rank tensors in order to speed up the inference time.
Another direction for developing efficient neural networks is to reduce the bit of weights and activations to save the memory usage and energy consumption Han et al. (). Hubara et.al. Hubara et al. (2016) proposed a BinaryNet with both 1-bit weights and activations, which reduced multiply-accumulate operations into accumulations. Rastegari et.al. Rastegari et al. (2016) further introduced a scale factor for each channel of weights and activations. Zhou et.al. Zhou et al. (2016) used a layer-wise scale factor and accelerated the training of binarized neural networks (BNNs) with low-bit gradient. Lin et.al. Lin et al. (2017) used more weight and activation bases to achieve higher performance. Although these methods greatly reduce the computational complexity, the performance of resulting networks is still worse than their CNN counterparts.
Beyond the low-bit computations, Chen et.al. Chen et al. (2019b) proposed Adder Neural Network (ANN), which replaced the convolutional operation by using -distance between activation and filter instead of correlation, thus produced a series of ANNs without massive floating number multiplications. The ANN can achieve better performance (e.g. , 74.9% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet with ANN-50) than low-bit especially binary neural networks, and has implications in the design of future hardware accelerators for deep learning. Thus, we are focusing on establishing ANNs with higher performance, which is comparable with that of CNNs.
|(a) vanilla ANN||(b) CNN||(c) PKKD ANN|
To this end, we suggest to utilize a convolutional network with the same architecture and number of learnable parameters to help the training of the student adder network. Since the weights in ANN are Laplacian distribution while those in CNN are often Gaussian distribution Chen et al. (2019b), directly matching the feature information is very difficult. Thus, we develop a kernel based method for mapping features and weights of these two kinds of neural networks into a suitable space for seeking the consistency. In practice, a Gaussian alike kernel is utilized for CNN and a Laplacian kernel is used for ANN to convert their features and weights to a new space. Then, the knowledge distillation technique is applied for transferring useful information (e.g. , the relationship between samples and distributions) from the teacher to the student network. Moreover, instead of using a fixed teacher network, a progressive distillation method is exploited to guide the training of ANN. Experiments conducted on several benchmark models and datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly improve the performance of ANNs compared to the vanilla ones, and even surpass that of CNN baselines.
2 Preliminaries and Motivation
In this section, we revisit ANN which uses additions to replace multiplications, and knowledge distillation (KD) method for learning student networks.
Adder Neural Networks (ANNs). Denote an input feature map of the intermediate layer of a deep neural network as , in which and are the height and width of the feature map, and is the number of input channels. Also given a filter in which is the kernel size and is the number of output channels, respectively. The traditional convolutional operation is defined as:
To avoid massive floating number multiplications, Chen et.al. Chen et al. (2019b) proposed an ANN which maximizes the use of additions by replacing the convolutional operation with the -distance between the input feature map and filter:
Since Eq. 2 only contains additions, the computational and energy costs can be significantly reduced according to Dally (2015); Sze et al. (2017); Chen et al. (2019b). However, there is still an accuracy gap between CNN and ANN. For example, there is over 1% top-1 accuracy gap between ResNet-50 and the homogeneous ANN-50.
Knowledge Distillation (KD). To enhance the performance of portable student networks, KD based methods Hinton et al. (2015); Zagoruyko and Komodakis (2016); Heo et al. (2019) are proposed to inherit the excellent performance from the teacher network. Given a pre-trained teacher network and a portable student network , the student network is optimized with the following loss function:
where is the cross-entropy loss, is the number of training samples, and are the outputs of student model and teacher model, respectively.
Basically, the conventional KD methods utilize a soft target to blend together the output of teacher network and ground-truth prediction:
where is the ground-truth label, and is the trade-off parameter.
Although ANN is designed with the same architecture and number of parameters with CNN, it still can be treated as a student network with lower performance. Meanwhile, this isomorphic setting is conductive to the knowledge transferred on each layer. Thus, we are motivated to explore a KD method to obtain ANNs with the same performance as (or even exceed) that of baseline CNNs.
3 Progressive Kernel Based Knowledge Distillation
In this section, we introduce a novel kernel based knowledge distillation method for transferring information from CNNs to ANNs. Moreover, we also investigate the progressive distillation approach for better performance.
3.1 Kernel Based Feature Distillation
Since ANNs are designed with the same architectures as that of CNNs, we can distill the feature maps of all intermediate layers between ANNs and CNNs. Most of the previous KD methods Yim et al. (2017); Zagoruyko and Komodakis (2016) adopted a two step approach to distill the feature, i.e. , convolution is firstly applied to match the feature dimension between teacher and student networks, and then the mean squared error (MSE) loss is computed based on the transformed features.
However, such two-step approach is problematic when directly used to distill the features of ANN, because the feature map distributions of ANN and CNN are different. As pointed out in Chen et al. (2019b), the weight distribution in a well-trained vanilla ANN is Laplacian distribution, while that in a well-trained vanilla CNN is Gaussian distribution. Moreover, the operation in CNN calculates the cross correlation between input and filter, and ANN calculates the -distance. Denoting the input distributions of ANN and CNN as and , and the weight distributions as and , respectively. Wherein, and are parameters in Laplacian distribution and Gaussian distribution, the output distributions of ANN and CNN can be derived as:
respectively. By comparing Eq. 5 and Eq. 6, we can find that distributions of ANN and CNN are unlikely to be the same unless the input distributions are carefully designed. Thus, it is very hard to directly applying MSE loss to make the output feature maps similar.
Actually, the difference between the output feature maps of the two kinds of networks is caused by the distribution difference of inputs and weights. Thus, we use a kernel based method to map the inputs and weights to a higher dimensional space to alleviate this problem.
Given two different vectors and , a Gaussian kernel is defined as . The kernel trick non-linearly maps the input space of and to a higher dimensional feature space. Motivated by this idea, given as the inputs and weights of the -th layer of ANN in which is the total number of intermediate layers, and are that of CNN, respectively. We transform the output feature maps and using the following equation:
wherein, and are two learnable parameters. Note that for a specific point in output feature, the output of convolutional operation equals to the dot product of two input vectors, and the output of adder operation equals to the -norm of two input vectors. Thus, different from the -norm used in traditional Gaussian kernel, is a Gaussian alike kernel that computes the cross correlation, and is a standard Laplace kernel Paclık et al. (2000); Ali et al. (2009) that computes the -norm of two vectors. Although is different from the standard Gaussian kernel, we prove that it can still map the input and weight to a higher dimensional feature space (the proof is shown in the supplementary material).
Given input vector and weight vector , the transformation function in Eq. 7 can be expressed as a linear combination of infinite kernel functions:
The kernel functions can be decomposed into the dot product of two mappings that maps the input space to an infinite feature space:
in which , and goes to infinity when .
Note that in the perspective of activation function, Eq. 7 and Eq. 8 can be treated as new activation functions besides ReLU. The advantage of using them instead of ReLU is that KD forces the output feature maps of teacher and student to be the same. However, when given the same inputs (which are the outputs derived from the former layer), the weight distributions and the calculation of the outputs are different in CNN and ANN, which means that the outputs should be different and is contradict with the purpose of KD. Compared to the piece-wise linear ReLU function, Eq. 7 and Eq. 8 smooth the output distribution when using a small and (similar to the temperature in KD), which still focus on the purpose of alleviating the difference of the distribution.
Besides using the kernel, a linear transformation is further applied to match the two distributions of the new outputs. Compare to directly using multiple layers (e.g. , conv-bn-relu) which is hard to train, a kernel smooths the distribution and makes the linear transformation enough to align the features. Treated ANN as an example, given as the output after applying the kernel, the intermediate output used for computing KD loss is defined as:
in which is the parameter of the linear transformation layer. Similarly, the output of CNN is defined as:
Note that the goal of ANN is to solve the classification problem rather than imitate the output of CNN. Thus, the feature alignment problem is solved by applying the linear transformation after using the kernel. The main stream of ANN is unchanged which means the inference is exactly the same as the vanilla ANN. Finally, the intermediate outputs of ANN is distilled based on the intermediate outputs of CNN. Specifically, a convolutional operation is used as the linear transformation during the experiment.
The knowledge distillation is then applied on each intermediate layer except for the first and last layer. Given the intermediate outputs of ANN and CNN, the KD loss is shown below:
3.2 Learning from a Progressive CNN
Several papers had pointed out that in some circumstances the knowledge in teacher model may not be transferred to student model well. The reasons behind are two folds.
The first is that the difference of the structure between teacher and student model is large. Prior works try to use assistant model to bridge the gap between teacher and student Mirzadeh et al. (2019). However, the reason why a large gap degrades the performance of student is not clear. We believe that the divergence of output distributions is the reason that cause the problem, and we map the output to a higher dimensional space to match the distributions between teacher and student, as shown in previous.
The second is that the divergence of training stage between teacher model and student model is large. Thus, researches have focused on learning from a progressive teacher. Jin et.al. Jin et al. (2019) required an anchor points set from a series of pre-trained teacher networks, and the student is learned progressively from the anchor points set. Yang et.al. Yang et al. (2019a) assumed that teacher and student have the same architecture, and the student is learned from the teacher whose signal is derived from an earlier iteration. Methods mentioned above require storing several pre-trained teacher models, and are memory-consuming.
We believe that the second circumstance is also related to the distribution discrepancy between the teacher and student model. In this time, it is the difference of training stage rather than the difference of architecture that makes the distribution different. Thus, in this section we move a step further and use a more greedy manner by simultaneously learning the CNN and ANN. Given a batch of input data, CNN is learned normally using the cross-entropy loss, and ANN is learned with the KD loss by using the current weight of CNN, i.e.
in which denotes the current number of step. When doing back-propagation, the KD loss is only backprop through ANN, and CNN is learned without interference.
There are two benefits by using this way. Firstly, only one copy of teacher model is required during the whole training process, which drastically reduces the memory cost compared to the previous methods, and is equal to the conventional KD method. Secondly, to the maximum extent it alleviates the effect of different training stage of CNN and ANN that brings the discrepancy of output distributions. The proposed progressive kernel based KD method (PKKD) is summarized in Algorithm 1.
The benefit of the proposed PKKD algorithm is explicitly shown in Figure 1. In CNN, the features can be classified based on their angles, since the convolution operation can be seen as the cosine distance between inputs and filters when they are both normalized. The features of vanilla ANN are gathered together into clusters since -norm is used as the similarity measurement. ANN trained with the proposed PKKD algorithm combines the advantages of both CNN and ANN, and the features are gathered together while at the same time can be distinguished based on their angles.
In this section, we conduct experiments on several computer vision benchmark datasets, including CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet.
|conv + KD Loss||✓||✓|
|Kernel + KD Loss||✓||✓|
|Kernel + conv + KD Loss||✓||✓|
|Progressively learned teacher||✓||✓||✓||✓|
4.1 Experiments on CIFAR
We first validate our method on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 dataset. CIFAR-10 (CIFAR-100) dataset is composed of different training images and test images from 10 (100) categories. A commonly used data augmentation and data pre-processing method is applied to the training images and test images. An initial learning rate of is set to both CNN and ANN, and a cosine learning rate scheduler is used in training. Both models are trained for 400 epochs with a batchsize of 256. During the experiment we set hyper-parameters , and the best result among them is picked.
In the following we do an ablation study to test the effectiveness of using kernel based feature distillation and a progressive CNN during the learning process. Specifically, the ablation study is conducted on CIFAR-10 dataset. The teacher network is ResNet-20, and student network uses the same structure except that the convolutional operations (Eq. 1) are replaced as adder operations (Eq. 2) to form an ANN-20. The first and last layers are remain unchanged as in Chen et al. (2019b).
Four different settings are conducted to prove the usefulness of kernel based feature distillation. The first setting is directly computing the KD loss on the output of intermediate layers of ResNet-20 and ANN-20, the second is computing the KD loss after applying a convolution to the output of the features, which is commonly used in many previous research Zagoruyko and Komodakis (2016); Heo et al. (2019). The third is using the kernel without linear transformation, and the fourth is the proposed method mentioned above. The other parts are the same for the above four settings.
In order to verify the effectiveness of using a progressive teacher during training, a pre-trained fixed ResNet-20 and a progressively learned ResNet-20 model are used separately. Thus, there are a total of different settings in the ablation study. The experimental results are shown in Table 1.
The results show that using a progressively learned teacher has a positive effect on the knowledge distillation in all the circumstances. Directly applying convolutional operation benefits to the knowledge transfer, but the divergence of the output distribution cannot be eliminated with such linear transformation. In fact, the combination of using a kernel based transformation and a convolution performs best among the four different settings. After all, combining the kernel based feature distillation method and the usage of progressive CNN, we get the best result of on CIFAR-10 with ANN-20.
|MMD ANN Huang and Wang (2017)||0.05G||1.25G||0||93.97%||75.14%|
|MMD ANN Huang and Wang (2017)||0.45M||81.89M||0||92.30%||68.07%|
|MMD ANN Huang and Wang (2017)||0.45M||137.79M||0||93.16%||69.89%|
In the following, we use the best setting mentioned above for other experiments. The VGG-small model Cai et al. (2017), ResNet-20 model and ResNet-32 model are used as teacher models, and the homogeneous ANNs are used as student models. The vanilla ANN Chen et al. (2019b), the binary neural network (BNN) using XNOR operations instead of multiplications Zhou et al. (2016) and MMD Huang and Wang (2017) method are used as the competitive methods. MMD mapped the outputs of teacher and student to a new space using the same kernel function, which is different from ours that maps the inputs and weights to a higher dimensional space and using different kernel functions for ANN and CNN. Note that by applying Gaussian alike kernel for CNN and Laplace kernel for ANN, our method is able to directly alleviate the problem that the weight distributions are different in ANN and CNN by separately mapping them to new space using the corresponding kernels. As the results shown in Table 2, the proposed method achieves much better results than vanilla ANN, and even outperforms the homogeneous CNN model. On VGG-small model, PKKD ANN achieves 95.03% accuracy on CIFAR-10 and 76.94% accuracy on CIFAR-100, which is 0.78% and 0.98% better than CNN. On the widely used ResNet model, the conclusion remains the same. For ResNet-20, PKKD ANNs achieves the highest accuracy with 92.96% on CIFAR-10 and 69.93% on CIFAR-100, which is 0.03% and 1.18% higher than the homogeneous CNN. The results on ResNet-32 also support the conclusion.
We further report the training and testing accuracy of ResNet-20, vanilla ANN-20 and the PKKD ANN-20 models on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets to explicitly get an insight of the reason why the PKKD ANN derived from the proposed method performs even better than the homogeneous CNN model. In Figure 2, the solid lines represent the training accuracy and the dash lines represent the testing accuracy. On both CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets, the CNN model achieves a higher training and testing accuracy than the vanilla ANN model. This is because when computing the gradient in vanilla ANN, the derivative of -norm is used instead of the original derivative Chen et al. (2019b), and the loss may not go through the correct direction. When using the proposed PKKD method, the output of CNN is used to guide the training of ANN, thus lead to a better classification result. Moreover, applying KD method helps preventing the student network from over-fitting Hinton et al. (2015), which is the reason why PKKD ANN has the lowest training accuracy and highest testing accuracy.
|(a) CIFAR-10||(b) CIFAR-100|
Finally, we show the classification results of using different hyper-parameters and . We set hyper-parameters , the teacher network is ResNet-20, and the student network is the homogeneous ANN-20. Experiments are conducted on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets and the results are shown in Tab. 3. More experiments compared with other methods are shown in the supplementary material.
4.2 Experiments on ImageNet
We also conduct experiments on ImageNet dataset. The dataset is composed of over different training images and test images from 1000 different categories. The same data augmentation and data pre-processing method is used as in He et.al. He et al. (2016). ResNet-18 and ResNet-50 are used as teacher models, and the homogeneous ANNs are used as student models. The teacher and student models are trained for 150 epochs with an initial learning rate of 0.1 and a cosine learning rate decay scheduler. The weight decay and momentum are set to and , respectively. The batchsize is set to 256, and the experiments are conducted on NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs.
|Model||Method||#Mul.||#Add.||XNOR||Top-1 Acc||Top-5 Acc|
|MMD ANN Huang and Wang (2017)||0.1G||3.5G||0||67.9%||88.0%|
|MMD ANN Huang and Wang (2017)||0.1G||7.6G||0||75.5%||92.2%|
As the results shown in Table 4, ANN trained with the proposed PKKD method on ResNet-18 achieves a 68.8% top-1 accuracy and 88.6% top-5 accuracy, which is 1.8% and 1.0% higher than the vanilla ANN, and reduce the gap from the original CNN model. The results show again that the proposed PKKD method can extract useful knowledge from the original CNN model, and produce a comparable results with a much smaller computational cost by replacing multiplication operations with addition operations. XNOR-Net Rastegari et al. (2016) tries to replace multiplication operations with xnor operations by quantifying the output, but it achieves a much lower performance with only 51.2% top-1 accuracy and 73.2% top-5 accuracy. We also report the accuracies on ResNet-50, and the conclusion remains the same. The proposed PKKD ANN achieves a 76.8% top-1 accuracy and 93.3% top-5 accuracy, which is 1.9% and 1.6% higher than the vanilla ANN, and is 0.6% and 0.4% higher than the original CNN model. Thus, we successfully bridge the gap between ANN and CNN by using the kernel based feature distillation and a progressive learned CNN to transfer the knowledge from CNN to a homogeneous ANN.
Adder neural networks are designed for replacing massive multiplications in deep learning by additions with a performance drop. We believe that such kind of deep neural networks can significantly reduce the computational complexity, especially the energy consumption of computer vision applications. In this paper, we show that the sacrifice of performance can be compensated using a progressive kernel based knowledge distillation (PKKD) method. Specifically, we use the kernel based feature distillation to reduce the divergence of distributions caused by the difference of operations and weight distributions in CNN and ANN. We further use a progressive CNN to guide the learning of ANN to reduce the divergence of distributions caused by the difference of training stage. The experimental results on several benchmark datasets show that the proposed PKKD ANNs produce much better classification results than vanilla ANNs and even outperform the homogeneous CNNs, which make ANNs both efficient and effective.
Adder Neural Network (ANN) is a new way of generating neural networks without using multiplication operations. It will largely reduce the energy cost and the area usage of the chips. This paper makes the performance of ANN exceeded that of homogeneous CNN, which means that we can use less energy to achieve a better performance. This is beneficial to the application of smart phones, the Internet of things, etc
- (2009) Skewed reflected distributions generated by the laplace kernel. Austrian Journal of Statistics 38 (1), pp. 45–58. Cited by: §3.1.
- (2017) Deep learning with low precision by half-wave gaussian quantization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 5918–5926. Cited by: §4.1.
- (2019) Data-free learning of student networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 3514–3522. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) AdderNet: do we really need multiplications in deep learning?. arXiv preprint arXiv:1912.13200. Cited by: §1, §1, §1, §2, §2, §3.1, §4.1, §4.1, §4.1.
- (2020) Optical flow distillation: towards efficient and stable video style transfer. In ECCV, Cited by: §1.
- (2015) High-performance hardware for machine learning. NIPS Tutorial. Cited by: §2.
- (2019) Autogan: neural architecture search for generative adversarial networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 3224–3234. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) Learning from bad data via generation. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 6044–6055. Cited by: §1.
- Training binary neural networks through learning with noisy supervision. Cited by: §1.
- (2016) Deep residual learning for image recognition. In Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp. 770–778. Cited by: §4.2.
- (2019) A comprehensive overhaul of feature distillation. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 1921–1930. Cited by: §2, §4.1.
- (2015) Distilling the knowledge in a neural network. arXiv preprint arXiv:1503.02531. Cited by: §1, §2, §4.1.
- (2017) Like what you like: knowledge distill via neuron selectivity transfer. arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.01219. Cited by: §4.1, Table 2, Table 4.
- (2016) Binarized neural networks. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pp. 4107–4115. Cited by: §1.
- (2020) Do we need zero training loss after achieving zero training error?. arXiv preprint arXiv:2002.08709. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) Knowledge distillation via route constrained optimization. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 1345–1354. Cited by: §3.2.
- (2017) Positive-unlabeled learning with non-negative risk estimator. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pp. 1675–1685. Cited by: §1.
- (2012) Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pp. 1097–1105. Cited by: §1.
- (2018) Accelerating convolutional networks via global & dynamic filter pruning.. In IJCAI, pp. 2425–2432. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) Towards optimal structured cnn pruning via generative adversarial learning. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 2790–2799. Cited by: §1.
- (2017) Towards accurate binary convolutional neural network. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 345–353. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) Learning instance-wise sparsity for accelerating deep models. arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.11840. Cited by: §1.
- (2020) LogDet metric-based domain adaptation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems. Cited by: §1.
- (2017) Thinet: a filter level pruning method for deep neural network compression. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on computer vision, pp. 5058–5066. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) Improved knowledge distillation via teacher assistant: bridging the gap between student and teacher. arXiv preprint arXiv:1902.03393. Cited by: §3.2.
- (2015) Learning deconvolution network for semantic segmentation. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on computer vision, pp. 1520–1528. Cited by: §1.
- (2000) Road sign classification using laplace kernel classifier. Pattern Recognition Letters 21 (13-14), pp. 1165–1173. Cited by: §3.1.
- (2017) Introduction to tensor decompositions and their applications in machine learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.10781. Cited by: §1.
- (2016) Xnor-net: imagenet classification using binary convolutional neural networks. In European conference on computer vision, pp. 525–542. Cited by: §1, §4.2.
- (2015) Faster r-cnn: towards real-time object detection with region proposal networks. In Advances in neural information processing systems, pp. 91–99. Cited by: §1.
- (2020) Efficient residual dense block search for image super-resolution.. In AAAI, pp. 12007–12014. Cited by: §1.
- (2017) Efficient processing of deep neural networks: a tutorial and survey. Proceedings of the IEEE 105 (12), pp. 2295–2329. Cited by: §2.
- (2017) Image super-resolution via deep recursive residual network. In Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp. 3147–3155. Cited by: §1.
- (2020) A semi-supervised assessor of neural architectures. In Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1810–1819. Cited by: §1.
- (2017) Ntire 2017 challenge on single image super-resolution: methods and results. In Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition workshops, pp. 114–125. Cited by: §1.
- (2015) Self-tuned deep super resolution. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, pp. 1–8. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) Positive-unlabeled compression on the cloud. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 2565–2574. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) ReNAS: relativistic evaluation of neural architecture search. arXiv, pp. arXiv–1910. Cited by: §1.
- (2019) Snapshot distillation: teacher-student optimization in one generation. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 2859–2868. Cited by: §3.2.
- (2019) Legonet: efficient convolutional neural networks with lego filters. In International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 7005–7014. Cited by: §1.
- (2017) A gift from knowledge distillation: fast optimization, network minimization and transfer learning. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 4133–4141. Cited by: §3.1.
- (2018) Wide activation for efficient and accurate image super-resolution. arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.08718. Cited by: §1.
- (2017) On compressing deep models by low rank and sparse decomposition. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 7370–7379. Cited by: §1.
- (2016) Paying more attention to attention: improving the performance of convolutional neural networks via attention transfer. arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.03928. Cited by: §2, §3.1, §4.1.
- (2020) Adaptive context-aware multi-modal network for depth completion. arXiv preprint arXiv:2008.10833. Cited by: §1.
- (2016) Dorefa-net: training low bitwidth convolutional neural networks with low bitwidth gradients. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.06160. Cited by: §1, §4.1.
- (2018) Discrimination-aware channel pruning for deep neural networks. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 875–886. Cited by: §1, §1.