GW170817: Measurements of neutron star radii and equation of state

GW170817: Measurements of neutron star radii and equation of state

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration    The Virgo Collaboration    B. P. Abbott LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    R. Abbott LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    T. D. Abbott Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    F. Acernese Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    K. Ackley OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    C. Adams LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    T. Adams Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    P. Addesso University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80100 Napoli, Italy    R. X. Adhikari LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    V. B. Adya Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. Affeldt Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    B. Agarwal NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    M. Agathos University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, United Kingdom    K. Agatsuma Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    N. Aggarwal LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    O. D. Aguiar Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil    L. Aiello Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy    A. Ain Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    P. Ajith International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru 560089, India    B. Allen Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    G. Allen NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    A. Allocca Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    M. A. Aloy Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain    P. A. Altin OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    A. Amato Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    A. Ananyeva LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. B. Anderson LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    W. G. Anderson University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    S. V. Angelova SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom    S. Antier LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    S. Appert LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    K. Arai LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    M. C. Araya LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    J. S. Areeda California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    M. Arène APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    N. Arnaud LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    K. G. Arun Chennai Mathematical Institute, Chennai 603103, India    S. Ascenzi Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    G. Ashton OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    M. Ast Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    S. M. Aston LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    P. Astone INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    D. V. Atallah Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    F. Aubin Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    P. Aufmuth Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. Aulbert Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    K. AultONeal Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    C. Austin Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    A. Avila-Alvarez California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    S. Babak Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    P. Bacon APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    F. Badaracco Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy    M. K. M. Bader Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    S. Bae Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon 34141, Korea    P. T. Baker West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA    F. Baldaccini Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy    G. Ballardin European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    S. W. Ballmer Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    S. Banagiri University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA    J. C. Barayoga LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. E. Barclay SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    B. C. Barish LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    D. Barker LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    K. Barkett Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. Barnum LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    F. Barone Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    B. Barr SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    L. Barsotti LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    M. Barsuglia APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    D. Barta Wigner RCP, RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, Hungary    J. Bartlett LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    I. Bartos University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    R. Bassiri Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    A. Basti Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    J. C. Batch LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    M. Bawaj Università di Camerino, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-62032 Camerino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy    J. C. Bayley SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    M. Bazzan Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, I-35131 Padova, Italy INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy    B. Bécsy MTA-ELTE Astrophysics Research Group, Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest 1117, Hungary    C. Beer Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. Bejger Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716, Warsaw, Poland    I. Belahcene LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    A. S. Bell SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    D. Beniwal OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    M. Bensch Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    B. K. Berger LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    G. Bergmann Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. Bernuzzi Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Informatiche, Università di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Gruppo Collegato di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy    J. J. Bero Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    C. P. L. Berry University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    D. Bersanetti INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    A. Bertolini Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    J. Betzwieser LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    R. Bhandare RRCAT, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013, India    I. A. Bilenko Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia    S. A. Bilgili West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA    G. Billingsley LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    C. R. Billman University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    J. Birch LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    R. Birney SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom    O. Birnholtz Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    S. Biscans LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    S. Biscoveanu OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    A. Bisht Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. Bitossi European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    M. A. Bizouard LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    J. K. Blackburn LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    J. Blackman Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    C. D. Blair LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    D. G. Blair OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    R. M. Blair LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    S. Bloemen Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands    O. Bock Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    N. Bode Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. Boer Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    Y. Boetzel Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland    G. Bogaert Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    A. Bohe Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    F. Bondu Univ Rennes, CNRS, Institut FOTON - UMR6082, F-3500 Rennes, France    E. Bonilla Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    R. Bonnand Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    P. Booker Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    B. A. Boom Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    C. D. Booth Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    R. Bork LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    V. Boschi European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    S. Bose Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    K. Bossie LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    V. Bossilkov OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    J. Bosveld OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    Y. Bouffanais APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    A. Bozzi European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    C. Bradaschia INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    P. R. Brady University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    A. Bramley LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    M. Branchesi Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy    J. E. Brau University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    T. Briant Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    F. Brighenti Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    A. Brillet Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    M. Brinkmann Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    V. Brisson Deceased, February 2018. LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    P. Brockill University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    A. F. Brooks LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    D. D. Brown OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    S. Brunett LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    C. C. Buchanan Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    A. Buikema LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    T. Bulik Astronomical Observatory Warsaw University, 00-478 Warsaw, Poland    H. J. Bulten VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    A. Buonanno Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA    D. Buskulic Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    C. Buy APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    R. L. Byer Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    M. Cabero Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    L. Cadonati School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    G. Cagnoli Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    C. Cahillane LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    J. Calderón Bustillo School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    T. A. Callister LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    E. Calloni Università di Napoli ’Federico II,’ Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    J. B. Camp NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA    M. Canepa Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    P. Canizares Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands    K. C. Cannon RESCEU, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.    H. Cao OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    J. Cao Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China    C. D. Capano Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    E. Capocasa APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    F. Carbognani European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    S. Caride Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA    M. F. Carney Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA    G. Carullo Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    J. Casanueva Diaz INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    C. Casentini Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    S. Caudill Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    M. Cavaglià The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA    F. Cavalier LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    R. Cavalieri European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    G. Cella INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    C. B. Cepeda LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    P. Cerdá-Durán Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain    G. Cerretani Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    E. Cesarini Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, I-00184 Roma, Italyrico Fermi, I-00184 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    O. Chaibi Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    S. J. Chamberlin The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA    M. Chan SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    S. Chao National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, 30013 Taiwan, Republic of China    P. Charlton Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678, Australia    E. Chase Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    E. Chassande-Mottin APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    D. Chatterjee University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    K. Chatziioannou Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada    B. D. Cheeseboro West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA    H. Y. Chen University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA    X. Chen OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    Y. Chen Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    H.-P. Cheng University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    H. Y. Chia University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    A. Chincarini INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    A. Chiummo European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    T. Chmiel Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA    H. S. Cho Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea    M. Cho University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA    J. H. Chow OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    N. Christensen Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    Q. Chu OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    A. J. K. Chua Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. Chua Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    K. W. Chung The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    S. Chung OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    G. Ciani Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, I-35131 Padova, Italy INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    A. A. Ciobanu OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    R. Ciolfi INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, I-35122 Padova, Italy INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy    F. Cipriano Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    C. E. Cirelli Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    A. Cirone Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    F. Clara LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    J. A. Clark School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    P. Clearwater OzGrav, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia    F. Cleva Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    C. Cocchieri The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA    E. Coccia Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy    P.-F. Cohadon Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    D. Cohen LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    A. Colla Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    C. G. Collette Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050, Belgium    C. Collins University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    L. R. Cominsky Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928, USA    M. Constancio Jr. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil    L. Conti INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy    S. J. Cooper University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    P. Corban LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    T. R. Corbitt Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    I. Cordero-Carrión Departamento de Matemáticas, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain    K. R. Corley Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA    N. Cornish Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA    A. Corsi Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA    S. Cortese European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    C. A. Costa Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil    R. Cotesta Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    M. W. Coughlin LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. B. Coughlin Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    J.-P. Coulon Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    S. T. Countryman Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA    P. Couvares LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    P. B. Covas Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    E. E. Cowan School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    D. M. Coward OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    M. J. Cowart LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    D. C. Coyne LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    R. Coyne University of Rhode Island    J. D. E. Creighton University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    T. D. Creighton The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    J. Cripe Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    S. G. Crowder Bellevue College, Bellevue, WA 98007, USA    T. J. Cullen Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    A. Cumming SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    L. Cunningham SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    E. Cuoco European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    T. Dal Canton NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA    G. Dálya MTA-ELTE Astrophysics Research Group, Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest 1117, Hungary    S. L. Danilishin Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. D’Antonio INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    K. Danzmann Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. Dasgupta Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India    C. F. Da Silva Costa University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    V. Dattilo European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    I. Dave RRCAT, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013, India    M. Davier LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    D. Davis Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    E. J. Daw The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom    B. Day School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    D. DeBra Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    M. Deenadayalan Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    J. Degallaix Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    M. De Laurentis Università di Napoli ’Federico II,’ Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    S. Deléglise Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    W. Del Pozzo Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    N. Demos LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    T. Denker Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    T. Dent Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    R. De Pietri Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Informatiche, Università di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Gruppo Collegato di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy    J. Derby California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    V. Dergachev Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    R. De Rosa Università di Napoli ’Federico II,’ Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    C. De Rossi Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    R. DeSalvo California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA    O. de Varona Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. Dhurandhar Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    M. C. Díaz The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    T. Dietrich Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    L. Di Fiore INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    M. Di Giovanni Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy    T. Di Girolamo Università di Napoli ’Federico II,’ Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    A. Di Lieto Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    B. Ding Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050, Belgium    S. Di Pace Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    I. Di Palma Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    F. Di Renzo Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    A. Dmitriev University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    Z. Doctor University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA    V. Dolique Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    F. Donovan LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    K. L. Dooley Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA    S. Doravari Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    I. Dorrington Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    M. Dovale Álvarez University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    T. P. Downes University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    M. Drago Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy    C. Dreissigacker Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. C. Driggers LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    Z. Du Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China    P. Dupej SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    S. E. Dwyer LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    P. J. Easter OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    T. B. Edo The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom    M. C. Edwards Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA    A. Effler LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    H.-B. Eggenstein Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    P. Ehrens LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    J. Eichholz LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. S. Eikenberry University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    M. Eisenmann Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    R. A. Eisenstein LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    R. C. Essick University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA    H. Estelles Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    D. Estevez Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    Z. B. Etienne West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA    T. Etzel LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    M. Evans LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    T. M. Evans LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    V. Fafone Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy    H. Fair Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    S. Fairhurst Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    X. Fan Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China    S. Farinon INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    B. Farr University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    W. M. Farr University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    E. J. Fauchon-Jones Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    M. Favata Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA    M. Fays Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    C. Fee Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA    H. Fehrmann Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. Feicht LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    M. M. Fejer Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    F. Feng APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    A. Fernandez-Galiana LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    I. Ferrante Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    E. C. Ferreira Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil    F. Ferrini European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    F. Fidecaro Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    I. Fiori European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    D. Fiorucci APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    M. Fishbach University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA    R. P. Fisher Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    J. M. Fishner LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    M. Fitz-Axen University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA    R. Flaminio Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan    M. Fletcher SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    H. Fong Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada    J. A. Font Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, E-46980 Paterna, València, Spain    P. W. F. Forsyth OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    S. S. Forsyth School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    J.-D. Fournier Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    S. Frasca Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    F. Frasconi INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    Z. Frei MTA-ELTE Astrophysics Research Group, Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest 1117, Hungary    A. Freise University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    R. Frey University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    V. Frey LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    P. Fritschel LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    V. V. Frolov LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    P. Fulda University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    M. Fyffe LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    H. A. Gabbard SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    B. U. Gadre Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    S. M. Gaebel University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    J. R. Gair School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, United Kingdom    L. Gammaitoni Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy    M. R. Ganija OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    S. G. Gaonkar Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    A. Garcia California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    C. García-Quirós Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    F. Garufi Università di Napoli ’Federico II,’ Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    B. Gateley LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    S. Gaudio Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    G. Gaur University and Institute of Advanced Research, Koba Institutional Area, Gandhinagar Gujarat 382007, India    V. Gayathri Indian Institute of Technology Bombay    G. Gemme INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    E. Genin European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    A. Gennai INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    D. George NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    J. George RRCAT, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013, India    L. Gergely University of Szeged, Dóm tér 9, Szeged 6720, Hungary    V. Germain Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    S. Ghonge School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    Abhirup Ghosh International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru 560089, India    Archisman Ghosh Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    S. Ghosh University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    B. Giacomazzo Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy    J. A. Giaime Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    K. D. Giardina LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    A. Giazotto Deceased, November 2017. INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    K. Gill Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    G. Giordano Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    L. Glover California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA    E. Goetz LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    R. Goetz University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    B. Goncharov OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    G. González Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    J. M. Gonzalez Castro Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    A. Gopakumar Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005, India    M. L. Gorodetsky Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia    S. E. Gossan LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    M. Gosselin European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    R. Gouaty Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    A. Grado INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-80131, Napoli, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    C. Graef SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    M. Granata Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    A. Grant SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    S. Gras LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    C. Gray LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    G. Greco Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    A. C. Green University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    R. Green Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    E. M. Gretarsson Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    P. Groot Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands    H. Grote Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    S. Grunewald Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    P. Gruning LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    G. M. Guidi Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    H. K. Gulati Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India    X. Guo Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China    A. Gupta The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA    M. K. Gupta Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India    K. E. Gushwa LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    E. K. Gustafson LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    R. Gustafson University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA    O. Halim INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy    B. R. Hall Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA    E. D. Hall LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    E. Z. Hamilton Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    H. F. Hamilton Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX 79699, USA    G. Hammond SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    M. Haney Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland    M. M. Hanke Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. Hanks LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    C. Hanna The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA    M. D. Hannam Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    O. A. Hannuksela The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    J. Hanson LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    T. Hardwick Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    J. Harms Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy    G. M. Harry American University, Washington, D.C. 20016, USA    I. W. Harry Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    M. J. Hart SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    C.-J. Haster Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada    K. Haughian SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    J. Healy Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    A. Heidmann Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    M. C. Heintze LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    H. Heitmann Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    P. Hello LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    G. Hemming European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    M. Hendry SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    I. S. Heng SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    J. Hennig SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    A. W. Heptonstall LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    F. J. Hernandez OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    M. Heurs Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. Hild SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    T. Hinderer Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands    W. C. G. Ho University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom    D. Hoak European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    S. Hochheim Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    D. Hofman Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    N. A. Holland OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    K. Holt LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    D. E. Holz University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA    P. Hopkins Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    C. Horst University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    J. Hough SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    E. A. Houston SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    E. J. Howell OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    A. Hreibi Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    E. A. Huerta NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    D. Huet LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    B. Hughey Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    M. Hulko LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. Husa Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    S. H. Huttner SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    T. Huynh-Dinh LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    A. Iess Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    N. Indik Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. Ingram OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    R. Inta Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA    G. Intini Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    B. S. Irwin Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA    H. N. Isa SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    J.-M. Isac Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    M. Isi LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    B. R. Iyer International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru 560089, India    K. Izumi LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    T. Jacqmin Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    K. Jani School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    P. Jaranowski University of Białystok, 15-424 Białystok, Poland    D. S. Johnson NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    W. W. Johnson Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    D. I. Jones University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom    R. Jones SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    R. J. G. Jonker Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    L. Ju OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    J. Junker Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. V. Kalaghatgi Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    V. Kalogera Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    B. Kamai LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. Kandhasamy LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    G. Kang Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon 34141, Korea    J. B. Kanner LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. J. Kapadia University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    S. Karki University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    K. S. Karvinen Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. Kasprzack Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    M. Katolik NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    S. Katsanevas European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    E. Katsavounidis LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    W. Katzman LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    S. Kaufer Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    K. Kawabe LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    N. V. Keerthana Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    F. Kéfélian Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    D. Keitel SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    A. J. Kemball NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    R. Kennedy The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom    J. S. Key University of Washington Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, WA 98011, USA    F. Y. Khalili Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia    B. Khamesra School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    H. Khan California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    I. Khan Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    S. Khan Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    Z. Khan Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India    E. A. Khazanov Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia    N. Kijbunchoo OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    Chunglee Kim Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055, Korea    J. C. Kim Inje University Gimhae, South Gyeongsang 50834, Korea    K. Kim The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    W. Kim OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    W. S. Kim National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Daejeon 34047, Korea    Y.-M. Kim Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology    E. J. King OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    P. J. King LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    M. Kinley-Hanlon American University, Washington, D.C. 20016, USA    R. Kirchhoff Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. S. Kissel LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    L. Kleybolte Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    S. Klimenko University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    T. D. Knowles West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA    P. Koch Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. M. Koehlenbeck Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. Koley Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    V. Kondrashov LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    A. Kontos LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    M. Korobko Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    W. Z. Korth LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    I. Kowalska Astronomical Observatory Warsaw University, 00-478 Warsaw, Poland    D. B. Kozak LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    C. Krämer Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    V. Kringel Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    B. Krishnan Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. Królak NCBJ, 05-400 Świerk-Otwock, Poland Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00656 Warsaw, Poland    G. Kuehn Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    P. Kumar Cornell Universtiy    R. Kumar Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India    S. Kumar International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru 560089, India    L. Kuo National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, 30013 Taiwan, Republic of China    A. Kutynia NCBJ, 05-400 Świerk-Otwock, Poland    S. Kwang University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    B. D. Lackey Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    K. H. Lai The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    M. Landry LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    P. Landry University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA    R. N. Lang Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, MI 49242, USA    J. Lange Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    B. Lantz Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    R. K. Lanza LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    A. Lartaux-Vollard LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    P. D. Lasky OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    M. Laxen LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    A. Lazzarini LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    C. Lazzaro INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy    P. Leaci Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    S. Leavey Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. H. Lee Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea    H. K. Lee Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea    H. M. Lee Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055, Korea    H. W. Lee Inje University Gimhae, South Gyeongsang 50834, Korea    K. Lee SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    J. Lehmann Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. Lenon West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA    M. Leonardi Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan    N. Leroy LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    N. Letendre Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    Y. Levin OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    J. Li Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China    T. G. F. Li The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    X. Li Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. D. Linker California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA    T. B. Littenberg NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35811, USA    J. Liu OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    X. Liu University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    R. K. L. Lo The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    N. A. Lockerbie SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom    L. T. London Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    A. Longo Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, I-00154 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, I-00154 Roma, Italy    M. Lorenzini Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy    V. Loriette ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, France    M. Lormand LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    G. Losurdo INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    J. D. Lough Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. O. Lousto Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    G. Lovelace California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    H. Lück Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    D. Lumaca Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    A. P. Lundgren Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    R. Lynch LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    Y. Ma Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    R. Macas Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    S. Macfoy SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom    B. Machenschalk Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. MacInnis LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    D. M. Macleod Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    I. Magaña Hernandez University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    F. Magaña-Sandoval Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    L. Magaña Zertuche The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA    R. M. Magee The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA    E. Majorana INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    I. Maksimovic ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, France    N. Man Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    V. Mandic University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA    V. Mangano SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    G. L. Mansell OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    M. Manske University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    M. Mantovani European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    F. Marchesoni Università di Camerino, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-62032 Camerino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy    F. Marion Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    S. Márka Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA    Z. Márka Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA    C. Markakis NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    A. S. Markosyan Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    A. Markowitz LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    E. Maros LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    A. Marquina Departamento de Matemáticas, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain    F. Martelli Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    L. Martellini Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    I. W. Martin SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    R. M. Martin Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA    D. V. Martynov LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    K. Mason LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    E. Massera The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom    A. Masserot Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    T. J. Massinger LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    M. Masso-Reid SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    S. Mastrogiovanni Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    A. Matas University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA    F. Matichard LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    L. Matone Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA    N. Mavalvala LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    N. Mazumder Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA    J. J. McCann OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    R. McCarthy LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    D. E. McClelland OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    S. McCormick LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    L. McCuller LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    S. C. McGuire Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA    J. McIver LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    D. J. McManus OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    T. McRae OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    S. T. McWilliams West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA    D. Meacher The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA    G. D. Meadors OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    M. Mehmet Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. Meidam Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    E. Mejuto-Villa University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80100 Napoli, Italy    A. Melatos OzGrav, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia    G. Mendell LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    D. Mendoza-Gandara Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    R. A. Mercer University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    L. Mereni Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    E. L. Merilh LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    M. Merzougui Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    S. Meshkov LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    C. Messenger SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    C. Messick The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA    R. Metzdorff Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, ENS-Université PSL, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France    P. M. Meyers University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA    H. Miao University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    C. Michel Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    H. Middleton OzGrav, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia    E. E. Mikhailov College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187, USA    L. Milano Università di Napoli ’Federico II,’ Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    A. L. Miller University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    A. Miller Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    B. B. Miller Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    J. Miller LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    M. Millhouse Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA    J. Mills Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    M. C. Milovich-Goff California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA    O. Minazzoli Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France Centre Scientifique de Monaco, 8 quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000, Monaco    Y. Minenkov INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    J. Ming Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. Mishra Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India    S. Mitra Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    V. P. Mitrofanov Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia    G. Mitselmakher University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    R. Mittleman LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    D. Moffa Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA    K. Mogushi The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA    M. Mohan European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    S. R. P. Mohapatra LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    M. Montani Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    C. J. Moore University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, United Kingdom    D. Moraru LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    G. Moreno LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    S. Morisaki RESCEU, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.    B. Mours Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    C. M. Mow-Lowry University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    G. Mueller University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    A. W. Muir Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    Arunava Mukherjee Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    D. Mukherjee University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    S. Mukherjee The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    N. Mukund Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    A. Mullavey LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    J. Munch OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    E. A. Muñiz Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    M. Muratore Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    P. G. Murray SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    A. Nagar Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, I-00184 Roma, Italyrico Fermi, I-00184 Roma, Italy INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, Italy Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette, France    K. Napier School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    I. Nardecchia Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    L. Naticchioni Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    R. K. Nayak IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741252, India    J. Neilson California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA    G. Nelemans Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    T. J. N. Nelson LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    M. Nery Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. Neunzert University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA    L. Nevin LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    J. M. Newport American University, Washington, D.C. 20016, USA    K. Y. Ng LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    S. Ng OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    P. Nguyen University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    T. T. Nguyen OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    D. Nichols Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands    A. B. Nielsen Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. Nissanke Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    A. Nitz Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    F. Nocera European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    D. Nolting LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    C. North Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    L. K. Nuttall Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    M. Obergaulinger Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain    J. Oberling LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    B. D. O’Brien University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    G. D. O’Dea California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA    G. H. Ogin Whitman College, 345 Boyer Avenue, Walla Walla, WA 99362 USA    J. J. Oh National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Daejeon 34047, Korea    S. H. Oh National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Daejeon 34047, Korea    F. Ohme Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    H. Ohta RESCEU, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.    M. A. Okada Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil    M. Oliver Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    P. Oppermann Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    Richard J. Oram LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    B. O’Reilly LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    R. Ormiston University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA    L. F. Ortega University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    R. O’Shaughnessy Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    S. Ossokine Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    D. J. Ottaway OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    H. Overmier LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    B. J. Owen Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA    A. E. Pace The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA    G. Pagano Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    J. Page NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35811, USA    M. A. Page OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    A. Pai Indian Institute of Technology Bombay    S. A. Pai RRCAT, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013, India    J. R. Palamos University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    O. Palashov Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia    C. Palomba INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    A. Pal-Singh Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    Howard Pan National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, 30013 Taiwan, Republic of China    Huang-Wei Pan National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, 30013 Taiwan, Republic of China    B. Pang Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    P. T. H. Pang The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    C. Pankow Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    F. Pannarale Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    B. C. Pant RRCAT, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013, India    F. Paoletti INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    A. Paoli European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    M. A. Papa Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. Parida Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    W. Parker LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    D. Pascucci SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    A. Pasqualetti European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    R. Passaquieti Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    D. Passuello INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    M. Patil Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00656 Warsaw, Poland    B. Patricelli Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    B. L. Pearlstone SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    C. Pedersen Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    M. Pedraza LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    R. Pedurand Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France Université de Lyon, F-69361 Lyon, France    L. Pekowsky Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    A. Pele LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    S. Penn Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456, USA    A. Perego INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, I-20126, Milano, Italy INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Gruppo Collegato di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy    C. J. Perez LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    A. Perreca Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy    L. M. Perri Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    H. P. Pfeiffer Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    M. Phelps SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    K. S. Phukon Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    O. J. Piccinni Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    M. Pichot Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    F. Piergiovanni Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    V. Pierro University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80100 Napoli, Italy    G. Pillant European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    L. Pinard Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    I. M. Pinto University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80100 Napoli, Italy    M. Pirello LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    M. Pitkin SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    R. Poggiani Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    P. Popolizio European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    E. K. Porter APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    L. Possenti Università degli Studi di Firenze, I-50121 Firenze, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    A. Post Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. Powell OzGrav, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia    J. Prasad Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    J. W. W. Pratt Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    G. Pratten Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    V. Predoi Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    T. Prestegard University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    M. Principe University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80100 Napoli, Italy    S. Privitera Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    G. A. Prodi Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy    L. G. Prokhorov Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia    O. Puncken Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. Punturo INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy    P. Puppo INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    M. Pürrer Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    H. Qi University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    V. Quetschke The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    E. A. Quintero LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    R. Quitzow-James University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    F. J. Raab LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    D. S. Rabeling OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    H. Radkins LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    P. Raffai MTA-ELTE Astrophysics Research Group, Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest 1117, Hungary    S. Raja RRCAT, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013, India    C. Rajan RRCAT, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013, India    B. Rajbhandari Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA    M. Rakhmanov The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    K. E. Ramirez The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    A. Ramos-Buades Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    Javed Rana Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    P. Rapagnani Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    V. Raymond Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    M. Razzano Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    J. Read California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    T. Regimbau Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    L. Rei INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    S. Reid SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom    D. H. Reitze LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    W. Ren NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    F. Ricci Università di Roma ’La Sapienza,’ I-00185 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    P. M. Ricker NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    G. M. Riemenschneider INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, Italy    K. Riles University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA    M. Rizzo Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    N. A. Robertson LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    R. Robie SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    F. Robinet LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France    T. Robson Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA    A. Rocchi INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy    L. Rolland Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    J. G. Rollins LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    V. J. Roma University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    R. Romano Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno, Italy INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy    C. L. Romel LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    J. H. Romie LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    D. Rosińska Janusz Gil Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, 65-265 Zielona Góra, Poland Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716, Warsaw, Poland    M. P. Ross University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA    S. Rowan SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    A. Rüdiger Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    P. Ruggi European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    G. Rutins SUPA, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, United Kingdom    K. Ryan LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    S. Sachdev LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    T. Sadecki LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    M. Sakellariadou King’s College London, University of London, London WC2R 2LS, United Kingdom    L. Salconi European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    M. Saleem Indian Institute of Technology Bombay    F. Salemi Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. Samajdar IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741252, India Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    L. Sammut OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    L. M. Sampson Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    E. J. Sanchez LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    L. E. Sanchez LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    N. Sanchis-Gual Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain    V. Sandberg LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    J. R. Sanders Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    N. Sarin OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    B. Sassolas Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France    B. S. Sathyaprakash The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    P. R. Saulson Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    O. Sauter University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA    R. L. Savage LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    A. Sawadsky Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    P. Schale University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    M. Scheel Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    J. Scheuer Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    P. Schmidt Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands    R. Schnabel Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    R. M. S. Schofield University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    A. Schönbeck Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    E. Schreiber Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    D. Schuette Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    B. W. Schulte Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    B. F. Schutz Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. G. Schwalbe Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    J. Scott SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    S. M. Scott OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    E. Seidel NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    D. Sellers LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    A. S. Sengupta Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar Ahmedabad Gujarat 382424, India    D. Sentenac European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    V. Sequino Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy    A. Sergeev Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia    Y. Setyawati Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    D. A. Shaddock OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    T. J. Shaffer LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    A. A. Shah NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35811, USA    M. S. Shahriar Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    M. B. Shaner California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA    L. Shao Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    B. Shapiro Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    P. Shawhan University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA    H. Shen NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    D. H. Shoemaker LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    D. M. Shoemaker School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    K. Siellez School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA    X. Siemens University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    M. Sieniawska Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716, Warsaw, Poland    D. Sigg LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    A. D. Silva Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil    L. P. Singer NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA    A. Singh Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. Singhal Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy    A. M. Sintes Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3—IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain    B. J. J. Slagmolen OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    T. J. Slaven-Blair OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    B. Smith LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    J. R. Smith California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    R. J. E. Smith OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    S. Somala Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Sangareddy, Khandi, Telangana 502285, India    E. J. Son National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Daejeon 34047, Korea    B. Sorazu SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    F. Sorrentino INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy    T. Souradeep Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    A. P. Spencer SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    A. K. Srivastava Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India    K. Staats Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    M. Steinke Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. Steinlechner Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    S. Steinlechner Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany    D. Steinmeyer Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    B. Steltner Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    S. P. Stevenson OzGrav, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia    D. Stocks Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA    R. Stone The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    D. J. Stops University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    K. A. Strain SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    G. Stratta Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    S. E. Strigin Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia    A. Strunk LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    R. Sturani International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal RN 59078-970, Brazil    A. L. Stuver Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085, USA    T. Z. Summerscales Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104, USA    L. Sun OzGrav, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia    S. Sunil Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India    J. Suresh Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007, India    P. J. Sutton Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    B. L. Swinkels Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    M. J. Szczepańczyk Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    M. Tacca Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    S. C. Tait SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    C. Talbot OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    D. Talukder University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA    D. B. Tanner University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    M. Tápai University of Szeged, Dóm tér 9, Szeged 6720, Hungary    A. Taracchini Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany    J. D. Tasson Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA    J. A. Taylor NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35811, USA    R. Taylor LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. V. Tewari Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456, USA    T. Theeg Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    F. Thies Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    E. G. Thomas University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    M. Thomas LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    P. Thomas LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    K. A. Thorne LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    E. Thrane OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    S. Tiwari Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy    V. Tiwari Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    K. V. Tokmakov SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom    K. Toland SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    M. Tonelli Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    Z. Tornasi SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    A. Torres-Forné Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain    C. I. Torrie LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    D. Töyrä University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    F. Travasso European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy    G. Traylor LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754, USA    J. Trinastic University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    M. C. Tringali Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy    A. Trovato APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France    L. Trozzo Università di Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    K. W. Tsang Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    M. Tse LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    R. Tso Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    D. Tsuna RESCEU, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.    L. Tsukada RESCEU, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.    D. Tuyenbayev The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    K. Ueno University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    D. Ugolini Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212, USA    A. L. Urban LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. A. Usman Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom    H. Vahlbruch Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    G. Vajente LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    G. Valdes Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA    N. van Bakel Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    M. van Beuzekom Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    J. F. J. van den Brand VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    C. Van Den Broeck Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands    D. C. Vander-Hyde Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    L. van der Schaaf Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    J. V. van Heijningen Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    A. A. van Veggel SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    M. Vardaro Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, I-35131 Padova, Italy INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy    V. Varma Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. Vass LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    M. Vasúth Wigner RCP, RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, Hungary    A. Vecchio University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    G. Vedovato INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy    J. Veitch SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    P. J. Veitch OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia    K. Venkateswara University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA    G. Venugopalan LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    D. Verkindt Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    F. Vetrano Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    A. Viceré Università degli Studi di Urbino ’Carlo Bo,’ I-61029 Urbino, Italy INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy    A. D. Viets University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA    S. Vinciguerra University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    D. J. Vine SUPA, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, United Kingdom    J.-Y. Vinet Artemis, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire Côte d’Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France    S. Vitale LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    T. Vo Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA    H. Vocca Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy    C. Vorvick LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    S. P. Vyatchanin Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia    A. R. Wade LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    L. E. Wade Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA    M. Wade Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA    R. Walet Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands    M. Walker California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA    L. Wallace LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    S. Walsh University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    G. Wang Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy    H. Wang University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom    J. Z. Wang University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA    W. H. Wang The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX 78520, USA    Y. F. Wang The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    R. L. Ward OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    J. Warner LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    M. Was Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    J. Watchi Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050, Belgium    B. Weaver LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    L.-W. Wei Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. Weinert Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    A. J. Weinstein LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    R. Weiss LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    F. Wellmann Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    L. Wen OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    E. K. Wessel NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA    P. Weßels Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. Westerweck Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany    K. Wette OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    J. T. Whelan Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    B. F. Whiting University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    C. Whittle LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    D. Wilken Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    D. Williams SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    R. D. Williams LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    A. R. Williamson Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands    J. L. Willis LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX 79699, USA    B. Willke Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    M. H. Wimmer Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    W. Winkler Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. C. Wipf LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    H. Wittel Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    G. Woan SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    J. Woehler Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    J. K. Wofford Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    W. K. Wong The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong    J. Worden LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352, USA    J. L. Wright SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    D. S. Wu Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    D. M. Wysocki Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    S. Xiao LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    W. Yam LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    H. Yamamoto LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    C. C. Yancey University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA    L. Yang Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA    M. J. Yap OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia    M. Yazback University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA    Hang Yu LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    Haocun Yu LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    M. Yvert Laboratoire d’Annecy de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France    A. Zadrożny NCBJ, 05-400 Świerk-Otwock, Poland    M. Zanolin Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301, USA    T. Zelenova European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy    J.-P. Zendri INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy    M. Zevin Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    J. Zhang OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    L. Zhang LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA    M. Zhang College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187, USA    T. Zhang SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom    Y.-H. Zhang Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    C. Zhao OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia    M. Zhou Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    Z. Zhou Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA    S. J. Zhu Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany    X. J. Zhu OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia    A. B. Zimmerman Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada    Y. Zlochower Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA    M. E. Zucker LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA    J. Zweizig LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
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Abstract

On August 17, 2017, the LIGO and Virgo observatories made the first direct detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of a neutron star binary system. The detection of this gravitational wave signal, GW170817, offers a novel opportunity to directly probe the properties of matter at the extreme conditions found in the interior of these stars. The initial, minimal-assumption analysis of the LIGO and Virgo data placed constraints on the tidal effects of the coalescing bodies, which were then translated to constraints on neutron star radii. Here, we expand upon previous analyses by working under the hypothesis that both bodies were neutron stars that are described by the same equation of state and have spins within the range observed in Galactic binary neutron stars. Our analysis employs two methods: the use of equation-of-state-insensitive relations between various macroscopic properties of the neutron stars and the use of an efficient parameterization of the defining function of the equation of state itself. From the LIGO and Virgo data alone and the first method, we measure the two neutron star radii as  km for the heavier star and  km for the lighter star at the 90% credible level. If we additionally require that the equation of state supports neutron stars with masses larger than as required from electromagnetic observations and employ the equation of state parametrization, we further constrain  km and  km at the 90% credible level. Finally, we obtain constraints on at supranuclear densities, with pressure at twice nuclear saturation density measured at at the 90% level.

pacs:
04.80.Nn, 97.60.Jd, 95.85.Sz, 97.80.–d
pacs:

] compiled 13 July 2019

I Introduction

Since September 2015, the Advanced LIGO Aasi et al. (2015) and Advanced Virgo Acernese et al. (2015) observatories have opened a window on the gravitational-wave (GW) Universe Abbott et al. (2016, 2018a). A new type of astrophysical source of GWs was detected on the 17th of August 2017, when the GW signal emitted by a low-mass coalescing compact binary was observed Abbott et al. (2017a). This observation coincided with the detection of a gamma ray burst, GRB 170817A Abbott et al. (2017b); Goldstein et al. (2017), verifying that the source binary contained matter, which was further corroborated by a series of observations that followed across the electromagnetic spectrum, e.g. Abbott et al. (2017a); Coulter et al. (2017); Troja et al. (2017); Haggard et al. (2017); Hallinan et al. (2017). The measured masses of the bodies and the variety of electromagnetic observations are consistent with neutron stars (NSs).

Neutron stars are unique natural laboratories for studying the behavior of cold, high-density nuclear matter. Such behavior is governed by the equation of state (EOS), which prescribes a relationship between pressure and density. This determines the relation between NS mass and radius, as well as other macroscopic properties such as the stellar moment of inertia and the tidal deformability (see e.g. Steiner et al. (2015)). While terrestrial experiments are able to test and constrain the EOS at densities below the saturation density of nuclei  g cm (see e.g. Tsang et al. (2012); Baldo and Burgio (2016); Lattimer and Prakash (2016); Oertel et al. (2017) for a review), currently they cannot probe the extreme conditions in the core of NSs. Astrophysical measurements of NS masses, radii, moments of inertia and tidal effects, on the other hand, have the potential to offer information about whether the EOS is soft or stiff and what the pressure is at several times the nuclear saturation density Hebeler et al. (2013); Lattimer and Prakash (2016); Özel and Freire (2016); Steiner et al. (2018).

GWs offer another opportunity for such astrophysical measurements to be performed, as the GW signal emitted by merging NS binaries differs from that of two merging black holes (BHs). The most prominent effect of matter during the observed binary inspiral comes from the tidal deformation that each star’s gravitational field induces on its companion. This deformation enhances GW emission and thus accelerates the decay of the quasi-circular inspiral Flanagan and Hinderer (2008); Vines et al. (2011); Damour et al. (2012). In the post-Newtonian (PN) expansion of the inspiral dynamics Buonanno et al. (2009); Blanchet (2014); Goldberger and Rothstein (2006); Goldberger (2007); Damour et al. (2001a); Blanchet et al. (1995, 2004); Damour et al. (2001b); Flanagan (1998), this effect causes the phase of the GW signal to differ from that of a binary BH from the fifth PN order onwards Damour (1982); Flanagan and Hinderer (2008); Gralla (2018). The leading-order contribution is proportional to each star’s tidal deformability parameter, , an EOS-sensitive quantity that describes how much a star is deformed in the presence of a tidal field. Here is the relativistic Love number Damour (1983); Hinderer (2008); T. Hinderer, B. D. Lackey, R. N. Lang and J. S. Read (2010); Binnington and Poisson (2009); Damour and Nagar (2009), is the compactness, is the areal radius, and is the mass of the NS. The deformation of each NS due to its own spin also modifies the waveform and depends on the EOS. This effect enters the post-Newtonian expansion as a contribution to the (lowest order) spin-spin term at the second order in the GW phase Poisson (1998); Bohé et al. (2015). The EOS also affects the waveform at merger, the merger outcome and its lifetime, as well as the post-merger emission (see e.g. Baiotti and Rezzolla (2017)). Finally, other stellar modes can couple to the tidal field and affect the GW signal Lai (1994); Flanagan and Hinderer (2008); Hinderer et al. (2016); Andersson and Ho (2018).

Among the various EOS-dependent effects, the tidal deformation is the one most readily measurable with GW170817. The spin-induced quadrupole has a larger effect on the orbital evolution for systems with large NS spin  Laarakkers and Poisson (1999); Pappas and Apostolatos (2012); Agathos et al. (2015); Harry and Hinderer (2018) but is also largely degenerate with the mass ratio and the NS spins, making it difficult to measure independently Krishnendu et al. (2017). The post-merger signal, while rich in content, is also difficult to observe, with current detector sensitivities being limited due to photon shot noise Aasi et al. (2015) at the high frequencies of interest. The merger and post-merger signal make a negligible contribution to our inference for GW170817 Abbott et al. (2017b, 2018b).

In Abbott et al. (2017a), we presented the first measurements of the properties of GW170817, including a first set of constraints on the tidal deformabilities of the two compact objects, from which inferences about the EOS can be made. An independent analysis further exploring how well the gravitational-wave data can be used to constrain the tidal deformabilites, and, from that, the NS radii, has also been performed recently De et al. (2018). Our initial bounds have facilitated a large number of studies, e.g. Margalit and Metzger (2017); Bauswein et al. (2017); Zhou et al. (2018); Rezzolla et al. (2018); Fattoyev et al. (2018); Nandi and Char (2018); Paschalidis et al. (2018); Ruiz et al. (2018); Annala et al. (2018); Raithel et al. (2018); Most et al. (2018), aiming to translate the measurements of masses and tidal deformabilities into constraints on the EOS of NS matter. In a companion paper Abbott et al. (2018b), we perform a more detailed analysis focusing on the source properties, improving upon the original analysis of Abbott et al. (2017a) by using Virgo data with reduced calibration uncertainty, extending the analysis to lower frequencies, employing more accurate waveform models, and fixing the location of the source in the sky to the one identified by the electromagnetic observations.

Here we complement the analysis of Abbott et al. (2018b), and work under the hypothesis that GW170817 was the result of a coalescence of two NSs whose masses and spins are consistent with astrophysical observations and expectations. Moreover since NSs represent equilibrium ground-state configurations, we assume that their properties are described by the same EOS. By making these additional assumptions, we are able to further improve our measurements of the tidal deformabilities of GW170817, and constrain the radii of the two NSs. Moreover, we use an efficient parametrization of the EOS to place constraints on the pressure of cold matter at supranuclear densities using GW observations. This direct measurement of the pressure takes into account physical and observational constraints on the NS EOS, namely causality, thermodynamic stability, and a lower limit on the maximum NS mass supported by the EOS to be . The latter is chosen as a - conservative estimate, based on the observation of PSR J0348+0432 with Antoniadis et al. (2013), the heaviest NS known to date.

The radii measurements presented here improve upon existing results (e.g. Annala et al. (2018); Fattoyev et al. (2018); De et al. (2018)) which had used the initial tidal measurements reported in Abbott et al. (2017a). We also verify that our radii measurements are consistent with the result of the methodologies presented in these studies when applied to our improved tidal measurements. Moreover, we obtain a more precise estimate of the NS radius than De et al. (2018) by almost a factor of 2.

Ii Methods

In this section we describe the details of the analysis. We use the same LIGO and Virgo data and calibration model analyzed in Abbott et al. (2018b). The data can be dowloaded from the LIGO Open Science Center (LOSC) LIGO Open Science Center (LOSC) (). The data include the subtraction of an instrumental artifact occurring at LIGO-Livingston within 2 s of the GW170817 merger Abbott et al. (2017a); Pankow et al. (2018), as well as the subtraction of independently measurable noise sources Driggers et al. (2018, 2012); Meadors et al. (2014); Tiwari et al. (2015).

ii.1 Bayesian methods

We employ a coherent Bayesian analysis to estimate the source parameters as described in Veitch et al. (2015); Abbott et al. (2016). The goal is to determine the posterior probability density function (PDF), , given the LIGO and Virgo data . Given a prior PDF on the parameter space (quantifying our prior belief in observing a source with properties ), the posterior PDF is given by Bayes’ Theorem , where is the likelihood of obtaining the data given that a signal with parameters is present in the data. Evaluating the multi-dimensional analytically is computationally prohibitive so we resort to sampling techniques to efficiently draw samples from the underlying distribution. We make use of the Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm as implemented in the LALInference package Veitch et al. (2015), which is part of the publicly available LSC Algorithm Library (LALLIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration (2017). For the likelihood calculation, we use  s of data around GW170817 and consider a frequency range of 23–2048 Hz covering both the time and frequency ranges where there was appreciable signal above the detector noise. The power spectral density (PSD) of the noise is computed on-source Littenberg and Cornish (2015); Cornish and Littenberg (2015); Abbott et al. (2018b), and we marginalize over the detectors’ calibration uncertainties as described in Farr et al. (2015); Abbott et al. (2018b, 2016).

In the analysis of a GW signal from a binary NS coalescence, the source parameters on which the signal depends can be decomposed as , into parameters that would be present if the two bodies behaved like point-masses , and EOS-sensitive parameters that arise due to matter effects of the two finite-sized bodies (e.g. tidal deformabilities). The priors on the point-mass parameters that we use are described in Abbott et al. (2018b), and we do not repeat them here. We only consider the “low-spin” prior of Abbott et al. (2018b) where the dimensionless NS spin parameter is restricted to , in agreement with expectations from Galactic binary NS spin measurements Tauris et al. (2017), and we fix the location of the source in the sky to the one given by EM observations. Regarding the EOS-related part of the parameter space and the corresponding priors, we consider two physically motivated parameterizations of different dimensionalities, which we describe in detail in the following sections. The first method requires the sampling of tidal deformability parameters, whereas the second method directly samples the EOS function from a 4-dimensional family of functions. In both cases, the assumption that the binary consists of two NSs that are described by the same EOS is implicit in the parametrization of matter effects (in contrast with the analysis of Abbott et al. (2018b), where minimal assumptions are made about the nature of the source).

ii.2 Waveform models and matter effects

The measurement process described above requires a waveform model that maps the source parameters to a signal that would be observed in the detector. The publicly available LALSimulation software package of LAL LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration (2017) contains several such waveform models obtained with different theoretical approaches. The impact of varying the models among several choices Schmidt et al. (2012); Hannam et al. (2014); Schmidt et al. (2015); Husa et al. (2016); Khan et al. (2016); Dietrich et al. (2017); Bohé et al. (2017); Bernuzzi et al. (2015); Lackey et al. (2017); Hinderer et al. (2016); Steinhoff et al. (2016); Sathyaprakash and Dhurandhar (1991); Bohé et al. (2013); Arun et al. (2009); Mikoczi et al. (2005); Bohé et al. (2015); Mishra et al. (2016); Flanagan and Hinderer (2008); Vines et al. (2011) is analyzed in detail in Abbott et al. (2018b), showing that for GW170817 the systematic uncertainties due to the modeling of matter effects are smaller than the statistical errors in the measurement. We perform a similar analysis here and find consistent results with Abbott et al. (2018b) when using different waveform models to determine the radius and EOS. Since the net effect of varying waveform models is very different for each of the source properties, we refer to the tables and figures in  Abbott et al. (2018b) for quantitative statements to assess the impact of modeling uncertainties. In the GW170817 discovery paper Abbott et al. (2017a) the results for the inferred tidal deformabilities were obtained with the model TaylorF2 that is based solely on post-Newtonian results for both the BBH baseline model Sathyaprakash and Dhurandhar (1991); Bohé et al. (2013); Arun et al. (2009); Mikoczi et al. (2005); Bohé et al. (2015); Mishra et al. (2016) and for tidal effects Flanagan and Hinderer (2008); Vines et al. (2011), as this model led to the conservatively largest bounds. In this paper, we use a more realistic waveform model PhenomPNRT Schmidt et al. (2012); Hannam et al. (2014); Schmidt et al. (2015); Husa et al. (2016); Khan et al. (2016) whose BBH baseline is calibrated to numerical relativity data. The model incorporates point-mass, spin, and the dominant precession effects based on Taracchini et al. (2014); Bohé et al. (2013); Buonanno et al. (2009); Arun et al. (2009); Mikoczi et al. (2005); Barausse and Buonanno (2010); Buonanno and Damour (2000, 1999) and tidal effects in the phase from combining analytical information Bernuzzi et al. (2015); Wade et al. (2014); Damour et al. (2012); Vines et al. (2011) with results from numerical-relativity simulations of binary NSs as described in Dietrich et al. (2017, 2018). Matter effects in the spin-induced quadrupole are included in the phase using post-Newtonian results Poisson (1998); Bohé et al. (2015); Arun et al. (2009); Mikoczi et al. (2005); Mishra et al. (2016), with the characteristic quadrupole deformation parameters computed from through EOS-insensitive relations Yagi and Yunes (2013a, b) as described in  Agathos et al. (2015); Chatziioannou et al. (2015). PhenomPNRT is also used as the reference model in our detailed analysis of the properties of GW170817 Abbott et al. (2018b).

ii.3 EOS-insensitive relations

Despite the microscopic complexity of NSs, some of their macroscopic properties are linked by EOS-insensitive relations that depend only weakly on the EOS Yagi and Yunes (2017). We use two such relations to ensure that the two NSs obey the same EOS and to translate NS tidal deformabilities to NS radii.

The first such relation we employ was constructed in Yagi and Yunes (2016) and studied in the context of realistic GW inference in Chatziioannou et al. (2018). It combines the mass ratio of the binary , the symmetric tidal deformability and the antisymmetric tidal deformability in a relation of the form . Fitting coefficients and an estimate of the relation’s intrinsic error were obtained by tuning to a large set of EOS models Yagi and Yunes (2017), ensuring that the relation gives pairs of tidal deformabilities that correspond to realistic EOS models. We sample uniformly in the symmetric tidal deformability , use the EOS-insensitive relation to compute , and then obtain and , which are used to generate a waveform template. The sampling of tidal parameters also involves a marginalization over the intrinsic error in the relation, which is also a function of and . This procedure leads to unbiased estimation of the tidal parameters for a wide range of EOSs and mass ratios Chatziioannou et al. (2018).

The second relation we employ is between NS tidal deformability and NS compactness  Maselli et al. (2013); Urbanec et al. (2013). We employ this relation with the coefficients given in Sec. (4.4) of Yagi and Yunes (2017) to compute the posterior for the radius and the mass of each binary component. Reference Yagi and Yunes (2017) reports a maximum relative error in the relation when compared to a large set of EOS models. We assume that the relative error is constant across the parameter space and distributed according to a zero-mean Gaussian with a standard deviation of and marginalize over it. We verified that our results are not sensitive to this choice of error estimate by comparing to the more conservative choice of a uniform distribution in .

ii.4 Parameterized EOS

Instead of sampling macroscopic EOS-related parameters such as tidal deformabilities, one may instead sample the defining function of the EOS directly. A number of parametrizations of different degrees of complexity and fidelity to realistic EOS models have been proposed (see Lindblom (2018) for a review), and here we employ the spectral parametrization constructed and validated in Lindblom (2010); Lindblom and Indik (2012, 2014). This parameterization expresses the logarithm of the adiabatic index of the EOS , as a polynomial of the pressure , where are the free EOS parameters. The adiabatic index is then used to compute the energy and rest-mass density , which are inverted to give the EOS. The parameterized high-density EOS is then stitched to the SLy EOS Douchin and Haensel (2001) below about half the nuclear saturation density. This is chosen because such low densities do not significantly impact the global properties of the NS Lattimer and Prakash (2001). Though use of a specific parametrization makes our results model-dependent, we have checked that they are consistent with another common EOS parametrization, the piecewise polytropic one Read et al. (2009); Raaijmakers et al. (2018), as also found in Carney et al. (2018).

In this analysis, we follow the methodology detailed in Carney et al. (2018), developed from the work of Lackey and Wade (2015), to sample directly in an EOS parameter space. We sample uniformly in all EOS parameters within the following ranges: , , , and and additionally impose that the adiabatic index . This choice of prior ranges for the EOS parameters was chosen such that our parametrization encompasses a wide range of candidate EOSs Lindblom (2010). Then for each sample, the four EOS parameters and the masses are mapped to a pair through the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations describing the equilibrium configuration of a spherical star Shapiro and Teukolsky (1983). The two tidal deformabilities are then used to compute the waveform template.

Sampling directly in the EOS parameter space allows for certain prior constraints to be conveniently incorporated in the analysis. In our analysis, we impose the following criteria on all EOS and mass samples: (i) causality, the speed of sound in the NS must be less than the speed of light (plus 10% to allow for imperfect parameterization) up to the central pressure of the heaviest star supported by the EOS; (ii) internal consistency, the EOS must support the proposed masses of each component; and (iii) observational consistency, the EOS must have a maximum mass at least as high as previously observed NS masses, specifically . Another condition the EOS must obey is that of thermodynamic stability; the EOS must be monotonically increasing (). This condition is built into the parametrization Lindblom (2010), so we do not need to explicitly impose it.

Iii Results

We begin by demonstrating the improvement in the measurement of the tidal deformability parameters due to imposing a common but unknown EOS for the two NSs. In Fig. 1 we show the marginalized joint posterior PDF for the individual tidal deformabilities. We show results from our analysis using the relation in green and the parametrized EOS without a maximum mass constraint in blue. These are compared to results from Abbott et al. (2018b), where the two tidal deformability parameters are sampled independently, in orange. The shaded region marks the region that is naturally excluded when a common realistic EOS is assumed, but is not excluded from the analysis of Abbott et al. (2018b). In both cases imposing a common EOS leads to a smaller uncertainty in the tidal deformability measurement. The area of the 90% credible region for the posterior shrinks by a factor of , which is consistent with the results of Chatziioannou et al. (2018) for soft EOSs and NSs with similar masses. The tidal deformability of a NS can be estimated through a linear expansion of around as in Del Pozzo et al. (2013); Agathos et al. (2015); Abbott et al. (2017a) to be at the level when a common EOS is imposed (here and throughout this paper we quote symmetric credible intervals). Our results suggest that “soft” EOSs such as APR4, which predict smaller values of the tidal deformability parameter, are favored over “stiff” EOSs such as H4 or MS1, which predict larger values of the tidal deformability parameter and lie outside the credible region.


Figure 1: Marginalized posterior for the tidal deformabilities of the two binary components of GW170817. The green shading shows the posterior obtained using the EOS-insensitive relation to impose a common EOS for the two bodies, while the green, blue, and orange lines denote 50% (dashed) and 90% (solid) credible levels for the posteriors obtained using EOS-insensitive relations, a parameterized EOS without a maximum mass requirement, and independent EOSs (taken from Abbott et al. (2018b)), respectively. The grey shading corresponds to the unphysical region while the seven black scatter regions give the tidal parameters predicted by characteristic EOS models for this event Wiringa et al. (1988); Akmal et al. (1998); Douchin and Haensel (2001); Müther et al. (1987); Lackey et al. (2006); Müller and Serot (1996); Read et al. (2009).

We next explore what inferences we can make about the structure of NSs. We do this using the spectral EOS parameterization described above in combination with the requirement that the EOS must support NSs up to at least , a conservative estimate based on the heaviest known pulsar Antoniadis et al. (2013). From this we obtain a posterior for the NS interior pressure as a function of rest-mass density. The result is shown in Fig. 2, along with predictions of the pressure-density relationship from various EOS models. The pressure posterior is shifted from the 90% credible prior region (marked by the orange lines) and towards the soft floor of the parameterized family of EOS. This means that the posterior is indicating more support for softer EOS than the prior. The vertical lines denote the nuclear saturation density and two more density values that are known to approximately correlate with bulk macroscopic properties of NSs Özel and Freire (2016). The pressure at twice (six times) the nuclear saturation density is measured to be () at the 90% level.

The pressure posterior appears to show minor signs of a bend above a density of . Evidence of such behavior at high densities would be an indication of extra degrees of freedom, though this is not an outcome of the GW data alone. Indeed the horizontal lines denote the 90% intervals for the central pressure of the two stars, suggesting that our data are not informative for pressures above that. The bend is an outcome of two competing effects: the GW data point toward a lower pressure, while the requirement that the EOS supports masses above demands a high pressure at large densities. The result is a precise pressure estimate at around and a broadening above that, giving the impression of a bend in the pressure. We have verified that the bend is absent if we remove the maximum mass constraint from our analysis.

Figure 2: Marginalized posterior (blue) and prior (orange) for the pressure as a function of the rest-mass density of the NS interior using the spectral EOS parametrization and imposing a lower limit on the maximum NS mass supported by the EOS of . The dark (light) blue shaded region corresponds to the 50% (90%) posterior credible level and the orange lines show the 90% prior credible interval. Horizontal lines denote the 90% credible interval for the central pressure of the heavier (dashed) and the lighter (dotted) binary components. Vertical lines correspond to once, twice, and six times the nuclear saturation density. Overplotted in grey are representative EOS models Wiringa et al. (1988); Akmal et al. (1998); Lackey et al. (2006), using data taken from Özel and Freire (2016); from top to bottom at we show H4, APR4, and WFF1.

Finally we place constraints in the 2-dimensional parameter space of the NS mass and areal radius for each binary component. This posterior is shown in Fig. 3. The left panel is obtained by first using the relation to obtain tidal deformability samples assuming a common EOS and then using the relation to compute the NS radii. The right panel is computed by integrating the TOV equation to compute the radius for each sample in the spectral EOS parametrization after imposing a maximum mass of at least . At the 90% level, the radii of the two NSs are  km and  km from the left panel and  km and  km from the right panel.

The difference between the two radii estimates is mainly due to different physical information included in each analysis. The EOS-insensitive-relations analysis (left panel) is based on GW data alone, while the parametrized-EOS analysis (right panel) imposes an additional observational constraint, namely that the EOS must support NSs of at least . This has a large effect on the radii priors as shown in the 1-dimensional plots of Fig. 3, since small radii are typically predicted by soft EOSs, which cannot support large NS masses. In the case of EOS-insensitive relations (left panel), the prior allows for smaller values of the radius than in the parametrized-EOS case (right panel), something that is reflected in the posteriors since the GW data alone cannot rule out radii below  km. Therefore the lower radius limit in the EOS-insensitive-relations analysis is determined by the GW measurement, while in the case of the parametrized-EOS analysis it is determined by the mass of the heaviest observed pulsar and its implications for NS radii Antoniadis et al. (2013). Additionally, we verified that the parametrized-EOS analysis without the maximum mass constraint leads to similar results to the EOS-insensitive-relations analysis.

Figure 3: Marginalized posterior for the mass and areal radius of each binary component using EOS-insensitive relations (left panel) and a parametrized EOS where we impose a lower limit on the maximum mass of (right panel). The top blue (bottom orange) posterior corresponds to the heavier (lighter) NS. Example mass-radius curves for selected EOSs are overplotted in grey. The lines in the top left denote the Schwarzschild BH () and Buchdahl () limits. In the one-dimensional plots, solid lines are used for the posteriors, while dashed lines are used for the corresponding parameter priors. Dotted vertical lines are used for the bounds of the 90% credible intervals.

To quantify the improvement from assuming that both NSs obey the same EOS, we apply the relation to tidal deformability samples calculated without assuming the relation (the orange posterior of Fig. 1) and obtain  km and  km at the 90% level. This suggests that imposing a common EOS for the two binary components leads to a reduction of the 90% credible interval width for the radius measurement of almost a factor of two from  km to  km.

Iv Discussion

In this letter, we complement our analysis of the tidal effects of GW170817 in Abbott et al. (2018b) with a targeted analysis that assumes astrophysically plausible NS spins and tidal parameters, as well as the same EOS for both NSs. This additional prior information enables us to measure NS radii with an uncertainty less than  km if consistency with observed pulsar masses is enforced, and  km using GW data alone at the 90% credible level. Simultaneously, the pressure at twice the nuclear saturation density is measured to be . Our results are consistent with X-ray binary observations (e.g. Steiner et al. (2010); Özel and Freire (2016); Steiner et al. (2018); Nattila et al. (2017)) and suggest that NS radii are not large. Additionally, our results can be compared to tidal inference based on the electromagnetic emission of GW170817 Radice et al. (2018); Coughlin et al. (2018).

Our results are comparable and consistent with studies that use the tidal measurement from Abbott et al. (2017a) to obtain bounds on NS radii. Using our bound of (the only tidal parameter in Abbott et al. (2017a), which assumed a common EOS for both NSs) and different EOS parametrizations, several studies found  km Annala et al. (2018); Zhou et al. (2018); Fattoyev et al. (2018); Most et al. (2018). Reference Raithel et al. (2018) arrives at a similar conclusion using our constraint Abbott et al. (2017a) (though see Abbott et al. (2018b) for an amended bound) and the observation that is almost insensitive to the binary mass ratio Wade et al. (2014). Our improved estimate of , and  km and  km for the EOS-insensitive-relation analysis is roughly consistent with these estimates (see for example Fig. 1 of Annala et al. (2018) and Fattoyev et al. (2018)). If we additionally enforce the heaviest observed pulsar to be supported by placing direct constraints on the EOS parameter space, we get further improvement in the radius measurement, with  km and  km.

A recent analysis of the GW170817 data was performed in De et al. De et al. (2018) using the TaylorF2 model, imposing that the two NSs have the same radii which, under the additional assumption that (an alternative to the relation used here Yagi and Yunes (2017)), directly relates the two tidal deformabilities as . De et al. constrain the common NS radius to a 90% credible interval , corresponding to a width of  km, which is wider than the uncertainties on radii presented in this paper by a factor of about two. There are differences in several details of the set-up of the two analyses (most notably, frequency range, data calibration, the noise PSD estimation, waveform model, parameter priors, assumed relations between radii and s and treatment of corresponding uncertainties), each of which may be responsible for part of the observed discrepancies. The analysis of De et al. reproduces the initial tidal deformability results of  Abbott et al. (2017a), but improvements detailed in Abbott et al. (2018b) and used in this work improved our tidal constraints by -%. Here, in contrast to De et al, we found that enforcing a common EOS additionally restricts the recovered tidal parameters, as shown in Fig 1. We note, however, that while our resulting posteriors for the two NS radii are similar to each other, a fraction of the posterior samples gives pairs with significantly different NS radii, up to  km. Therefore, the De et al. analysis makes considerably different assumptions when enforcing a common EOS than us.

Our results, and specifically the lower radius limit, do not constitute observational proof of tidal effects in GW170817, as our analysis has explicitly assumed that the coalescing bodies were NSs both in terms of their spins and tidal deformabilities. In particular, the spins are restricted to small values typical for galactic NSs in binaries, and the tidal deformabilites are calculated consistently assuming a common typical NS EoS. Moreover, the map diverges as approaches zero (BH), and therefore the lower bounds obtained for the radii do not imply lower bounds on the tidal deformabilities. Meanwhile, the analysis of Abbott et al. (2018b) assumes independent tidal parameters and finds a lower bound on only under the small-spin assumption but not if spins larger than are allowed.

The detection of GW170817 has opened new avenues in astrophysics and in the study of matter at conditions currently unattainable in terrestrial laboratories. As the network of GW observatories expands and improves in sensitivity, we expect many more observations of BNS mergers Abbott et al. (2018a). Each new observation will yield additional information about the properties of NSs, and the increasing precision of our measurements will simultaneously raise new challenges. As statistical uncertainties shrink, systematic uncertainties that are naturally introduced by our models and the underlying assumptions of our methods may begin to dominate. Improved waveform models and data analysis techniques are an area of active research for the GW community, and will be required to achieve our most complete understanding of these extreme systems.

V Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Educació, Investigació, Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat Valenciana, the National Science Centre of Poland, the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFI), the National Research Foundation of Korea, Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations, and Communications, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, MPS, INFN, CNRS and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for provision of computational resources.

Data associated with the figures in this article, including posterior samples generated using the PhenomPNRT model, can be found at dcc.ligo.org/LIGO-P1800115/public. The GW strain data for this event are available at the LIGO Open Science Center LIGO Open Science Center (LOSC) (2017). This article has been assigned the document number LIGO-P1800115.

References

Authors

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration

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