HU-EP-13/04HU-Mathematik:05-2013 FIRE4, LiteRed and accompanying tools to solve integration by parts relations

Hu-Ep-13/04 HU-Mathematik:05-2013
FIRE4, LiteRed and accompanying tools to solve integration by parts relations

Alexander V. Smirnov Scientific Research Computing Center,
Moscow State University,
119992 Moscow, RussiaSkobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics,
Moscow State University,
119992 Moscow, RussiaInstitut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik,
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,
12489 Berlin, Germany
   Vladimir A. Smirnov asmirnov80@gmail.com smirnov@theory.sinp.msu.ru Scientific Research Computing Center,
Moscow State University,
119992 Moscow, RussiaSkobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics,
Moscow State University,
119992 Moscow, RussiaInstitut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik,
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,
12489 Berlin, Germany
Abstract

New features of the Mathematica code FIRE are presented. In particular, it can be applied together with the recently developed code LiteRed by Lee in order to provide an integration by parts reduction to master integrals for quite complicated families of Feynman integrals. As as an example, we consider four-loop massless propagator integrals for which LiteRed provides reduction rules and FIRE assists to apply these rules. So, as a by-product one obtains a four-loop variant of the well-known three-loop computer code MINCER. We also describe various ways to find additional relations between master integrals for several families of Feynman integrals.

1 Introduction

At the modern level of calculations in elementary particle physics, one often needs to evaluate thousands and millions of Feynman integrals. A classical approach is to apply the so-called integration by parts (IBP) relations Chetyrkin:1981qh () (see Chapter 6 of Smirnov:2013ym () for a recent review) and reduce all integrals to a smaller set, the master integrals111As it has been demonstrated in Smirnov:2010hn (), the number of master integrals is always finite, so that, theoretically, this approach should be successful.. A few years ago one of the present authors developed a program named FIRE Smirnov:2008iw () performing reduction of Feynman integrals to master integrals. Currently FIRE written in Mathematica is one of a few public available codes (for other public products see Anastasiou:2004vj (); Studerus:2009ye (); vonManteuffel:2012np (); Lee:2012cn ()) performing IBP reduction.

The purpose of this paper is to present FIRE4 – the current Mathematica version of FIRE222All versions of FIRE can be downloaded from http://science.sander.su/FIRE.htm.. Next section introduces the notation. In the following sections we are going to describe new features, then we will analyze reasons on why FIRE might work slowly and give some hints on resolving those issues. In particular, we will explain how FIRE can be applied together with the recently developed code LiteRed Lee:2012cn () by Lee in order to provide an IBP reduction to master integrals for quite complicated families of Feynman integrals. As as an example, we consider four-loop massless propagator integrals for which LiteRed provides reduction rules and FIRE assists to apply these rules. So, as a by-product one obtains a four-loop variant of the well-known three-loop computer code MINCER Gorishnii:1989gt (). We also describe various ways to find additional relations between master integrals for several families of Feynman integrals.

2 Basic definitions

Let us remind the notation we are going to use. Consider a Feynman integral as functions of integer variables (indices),

(1)

where the denominator factors are linear functions with respect to scalar products of loop momenta and external momenta , and dimensional regularization with is applied.

The integration by parts relations Chetyrkin:1981qh ()

(2)

can be rewritten in the following form:

(3)

where and are linear functions of .

A classical approach is to separate all possible sets of indices into so-called sectors. Choosing a sector (one out of ) defines for each index whether it is positive or non-positive. In fact, there are less than sectors – indices corresponding to irreducible numerators are always non-positive. A corner integral in a sector is the one with indices equal to or ; each sector has a unique corner integral.

We say that a sector is lower than another sector if all indices of integrals in the first one are smaller that corresponding indices in the second one. Normally one tries to reduce Feynman integrals to those corresponding to lower sectors. The reason for such a choice is that positive shifts always come with multiplication by the corresponding index, therefore relations written in sectors with negative values of indices do not depend on integrals with positive values of those indices. Moreover, integrals are simpler if more indices are non-positive.

The complexity of each integral corresponding to a given family (1) is basically defined by the number of positive indices, and then the two non-negative numbers (the number of dots) and , where are sets of positive (negative) indices.

A sector is called trivial if all integrals corresponding to sets of indices in this sector are equal to zero. The sector with all non-positive indices is always trivial. The conditions determining whether a sector is trivial are called boundary conditions.

A Laporta algorithm Laporta:2001dd () in a given sector is solving IBP’s with a Gauss elimination after choosing an ordering. The ordering choice and all details of the algorithm can be modified by the algorithm implementer.

3 Combining Fire with LiteRed

A number of ideas and improvements to FIRE were made due to Lee, both before and after his paper on the code LiteRed Lee:2012cn () appeared.

3.1 Automatic determination of trivial sectors

The initial version of FIRE used the RESTRICTIONS variable in order to provide boundary conditions. Now one can generate information on trivial sectors automatically. This is based on ideas presented in Lee:2008tj (). IBP’s form a tangent Lie algebra to the group of linear transformations of loop momenta with determinant one. This yields such a statement that if applying IBP’s to the corner integral result in it being equal to zero, then the sector is trivial. This logic has been encoded in FIRE, hence it can automatically detect boundary conditions in many cases.333This strategy of revealing trivial sectors was also suggested by Pak Pak:2011xt ().

Still, sometimes this does not detect all the boundary conditions. For example, this is the case if we contract all the lines corresponding to non-positive indices (for a given sector) and obtain a massless integral at the external momentum on the light cone. For details see section “Scaleless integrals” in Lee:2012cn (). So, if one generates boundary condition automatically one might wish to mark missing trivial sectors manually. This can be done by setting SBasisR[0,sector] to True after running the Prepare[] command. Here sector is a list of 1 or -1 – the signs of indices in the corresponding sector.

3.2 Getting rid of a part of IBP’s

As it has been explained in Lee:2008tj (), the IBP’s (before substituting indices) form a Lie algebra. This knowledge lets one use less IBP’s when performing reduction to master integrals.

This strategy has been implemented in the new version of FIRE. When working in a given sector, the IBP’s are sorted so that the first ones maximally shift indices under the chosen ordering. Then if a given integral is the highest one among integrals appearing in an IBP number (after substituting some indices), then their is no need to apply IBP’s with numbers or greater to this integral.

This approach decreases the number of redundant IBP’s a lot and speeds up the reduction. The current version of FIRE has this option by default set to True. The only reason to turn it off is if you are working with something different from classical IBP’s that do not form a Lie algebra.

3.3 Using LiteRed together with FIRE for IBP reduction

The IBP reduction procedure present in LiteRed Lee:2012cn () is based on the approach of Lee:2008tj () and aims to create reduction rules in all sectors. A set of reduction rules (or a basis in sector Smirnov:2006wh ()) gives one a possibility to reduce integrals in such a sector efficiently. No relations have to be solved anymore, for each integral (except for master integrals) one can quickly generate a relation representing it in terms of lower integrals.

However even if bases exist in all sectors, the reduction speed depends a lot on the way those rules are applied. As it has been explained in Smirnov:2008iw (), there are basically two ways to perform reduction:

  • Reduction variant 1:
    the algorithm starts from lower sectors and lower integrals in them, step by step building the tables for the integrals with increasing complexity. After each step each integral is represented in terms of master integrals.

  • Reduction variant 2:
    the algorithm starts from higher sectors and higher integrals in them, applies reduction rules to them and writes them into tables. On this pass nothing is substituted. Each integral is represented in terms of few integrals that are “a bit” lower. Then one makes a pass back, substituting in those tables from lowest to highest integrals. During this pass each integral is represented in terms of master integrals.

Both approaches might work efficiently (in FIRE we choose variant 2), however different approaches might reduce performance a lot. The problem is that if one starts substituting table rules partially, the length of expressions starts to grow and is not limited any longer. And this also leads to a growth of coefficients’ size and problems with algebraic simplifications.

Using FIRE together with LiteRed can make reduction much faster. To illustrate this feature let us choose an example of one of the most complicated families of massless four-loop propagator integrals. This is the family of integrals which includes the master integral , in the notation of Baikov:2010hf () – see Fig. 1.

Figure 1: Three most complicated four-loop propagator master integrals

Using the choice of the loop momenta and numerators (associated with the first three indices) as in Lee:Webpage () we have the following explicit expression for a general Feynman integral of this family:

(4)

The LiteRed rules for the family can be downloaded from Lee:Webpage (). (One takes the “p4” bases.) To reduce a sample integral with these bases with LiteRed one should launch Mathematica and run:

SetDirectory[NotebookDirectory[]];

<<LiteRed‘;

SetDim[d];

Declare[{l1, l2, l3, l4, q}, Vector];

sp[q, q] = 1;

<<"p4 dir/p4"

IBPReduce[j[p4, -2, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1], "file"]

To do the same with the use of FIRE one needs to define propagators and other data first.

Internal = {l1, l2, l3, l4};

External = {q};

Propagators = {(l4 + q), (-l2 + l4), (l2 - l3 + l4), (l1 - l2 + l3
- l4), (-l1 + l4), (l1 - l2), (l2 - l3), (l3 - l4), (l1 + q), (l2
+ q), (l3 + q), l3, l4, l1};

Replacements = {q -> 1};

startinglist = Flatten[Outer[(IBP[#1, #2] /. Replacements) &,
Internal, Join[Internal,
External]], 1];

SYMMETRIES = {};

Get["FIRE_4.0.0.m"];

Prepare[AutoDetectRestrictions -> True]; Lee:2012cn () SaveStart["p4"];

Now on a clean kernel one can load the start file, the bases and evaluate the integral:

Get["FIRE_4.0.0.m"];

LoadStart["p4", 1];

LoadLRules["p4 dir", 1];

Burn[];

EvaluateAndSave[{{1, {-2, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1}}},
"p4.tables"];

The tables can be loaded later on a clean kernel with

Get["FIRE_4.0.0.m"];

LoadStart["p4", 1];

LoadLRules["p4 dir", 1];

Burn[];

LoadTables["p4.tables"];

so that the answer for the integral under consideration can immediately be retrieved within

F[1, {-2, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1}]

We ran some tests, comparing LiteRed alone and FIRE with the use of LiteRed bases on the integrals given by (4) for n = 1, 2, …, (with n = 0 it is a master-integral). The results obtained are shown in Tab. 1 (time is given in seconds444Time filled with “?” exceeds 18 days or one and a half million seconds., 3.07 GHz processor was used).

n 1 2 3 4 5
LiteRed 943 9988 96318 ? ?
FIRE with LiteRed 1251 2430 7044 27762 197823
Table 1: Sample evaluation time (in seconds).

As the tests show, a combined usage of these two programs is highly recommended. We did not even try to run FIRE on these complicated integrals alone – it would take too much time.

Let us emphasize that the rules of reduction obtained within LiteRed are similar in their character to rules obtained by hand. This means that the code based on these rules is nothing but the four-loop variant of the well-known package MINCER Gorishnii:1989gt (). It is even more than that: LiteRed provides a reduction to true master integrals, while the hand-made algorithm on which MINCER is based reduces given integrals to master integrals and some families of simple integrals which can be expressed explicitly in terms of gamma functions, so that MINCER provides a result for any three-loop massless propagator integral in an expansion in epsilon up to some order. The rules obtained automatically with LiteRed can be quite cumbersome. The above example shows that their application within FIRE turn out to be more effective that with LiteRed itself. (Well, at least within the current version of LiteRed.)

Suppose now that we have succeeded to construct bases almost in all the sectors using LiteRed. Then it is even more important to turn to FIRE and run it also to perform an IBP reduction in missing sectors.

4 Summary of smaller improvements in Fire since version 3.0 555Version 3.0 was the first public version of Fire Smirnov:2008iw ().

  • FIRE 4 comes as a single file including IBP and SBases and required parts of tsort (see Pak:2011xt () and the discussion in section 5.1). Since now it can be combined with LiteRed we removed the part related to the construction of Gröbner bases from the code – the LiteRed bases are more efficient.

  • Multiple speed and memory usage improvements.

  • Multiple bug fixes.

    There is nothing much to tell about these two items, however we can state that in some cases the new FIRE works a lot faster, and many bugs have been fixed.

  • The possibility to work with more than fourteen indices. (This is the number of indices for families of four-loop propagator integrals.)

    This might be complicated for the Mathematica version, but at least it works in principle.

  • DatabaseUsage 4 and MemoryLimit.

    FIRE uses database engines to store tables on a hard disk. Depending on its settings it might store more or less (the more one stores, the less RAM one needs, but the more performance degrades). The first public version of FIRE had the DatabaseUsage setting that could be changed from 0 (no usage) to 3 (maximum). Currently there is also possible value 4, but what is more important, there is a setting MemoryLimit. If it is set, FIRE automatically increases DatabaseUsage upon reaching the limit (measured in megabytes).

  • The possibility to choose master integrals.

    Sometimes one wants to choose master specific integrals. For example there are two master integrals in a sector. One of them is normally the corner integral in the sector, but the second integral choice might be different. If no priority is set, FIRE chooses the second master integral itself. However, there might be some reasons to change this choice. For example, one of those integrals can be calculated easier than the other.

    This priority can be defined by the MakeMaster with two options – the integral and the priority (a positive integer). The integrals marked with MakeMaster are preferred to the ones not marked and are compared between each other by the priority set.

  • The possibility to construct reduction bases automatically.

    The first public version of FIRE came together with the possibility to build reduction bases in sectors (based on the Gröbner bases approach). Currently we can claim this approach (within FIRE) to be inefficient: the rules constructed by the LiteRed program work much better. However, in many sectors one can now construct reduction rules only with the use of FIRE, and they can work better that the ones from LiteRed.

    The idea is that if there are no master integrals in a given sector, there is a chance of finding a single IBP that can throw all integrals from this sector. Of course, one does not fix an ordering in this case; the algorithm analyses all IBP’s and tries to find an ordering such that such a reduction will be possible. A search for these bases can be initiated by the BuildAll[region] command.

To demonstrate bases construction let us consider a simple massless box diagram.

Get["FIRE_4.0.0.m"];

Internal = {k};

External = {p1, p2, p4};

Propagators = {-k, -(k + p1), -(k + p1 + p2), -(k + p1 + p2 + p4)};

Replacements = {p1 -> 0, p2 -> 0, p4 -> 0, p1 p2 -> -S/2,
p2 p4 -> -T/2, p1 p4 -> (S + T)/2, S -> 1, T -> 1};

PrepareIBP[];

startinglist = Flatten[Outer[(IBP[#1, #2] //. Replacements) &,
Internal, Join[Internal, External]], 1];

Now we do not provide diagram symmetries, but simply autodetect boundary conditions, construct bases automatically, save the file and quit the kernel.

Prepare[AutoDetectRestrictions -> True];

BuildAll[{0, 0, 0, 0}];

SaveSBases[‘‘box’’];

Quit[];

The input of BuildAll specifies that all indices can be both positive, or non-positive. If one puts -1 instead of 0 in some place, then the corresponding index can be only negative.

One can notice that the code has built bases in sectors out of . That is not much, but sometimes it works better, and if one is going for maximum performance, one should not forget about those things.

Now on a clean kernel the bases can be loaded and we can go for an evaluation:

Get["FIRE_4.0.0.m"];

LoadSBases[‘‘box’’,2];

Burn[];

F[2,{2,2,2,2}];

One can quickly see that the result depends on three master-integrals:

{G[2, {1, 1, 1, 1}], G[2, {0, 1, 0, 1}], G[2, {1, 0, 1, 0}]}

The second and the third integral are identical, but FIRE had no information to retrieve that. To give this information to FIRE one could provide global symmetries (do not forget to do it in practice), however sometimes identical integrals cannot be located by global symmetries of the diagram.

5 Getting rid of extra master integrals

FIRE cannot directly identify master integrals unless they are equivalent to each other under a global symmetry of the diagram. Hence after running a sample reduction one might find that the tables contain too many master integrals. (Their list can be produced by the GetII/@IrreducibleIntegrals[] command).

If we deal with several families of Feynman integrals (for example, relevant to a given physical problem) we take the union of the sets of the master integrals corresponding to the individual families. (It often happens that some master integrals belong to different families.) Then we could try to find relations in this united family. In this section, three tools of finding such relations are presented.

In fact, in certain situations, it is clear that extra relations should exist. For example, one can observe that some denominators in relations expressing integrals in terms of master integrals turn out to be quadratic in , or even unfactorizable polynomials of a higher degree. However, the convergence analysis of general Feynman integrals shows that the poles in belong to the real axis, so that such complicated factors in the denominator should not be present. Indeed, after finding extra relations between the master integrals of the current family, these spurious denominators disappear.

5.1 tsort

The simplest way to find extra relations is to use an integral identification algorithm by Pak Pak:2011xt () based on alpha-representation. We will refer to this algorithm as tsort. This code creates alpha-representations of integrals in a given list, puts them into certain canonical forms, then finds equivalents between integrals. The relations can be produced in a form of Mathematica rules by their FindRules command or directly saved into a file with the WriteRules command. Such a file with rules can be used in consequent reductions.

If we return to the box example above, we can now run (the propagators, momenta and replacements have to be provided):

list=GetII / IrreducibleIntegrals[];

Internal = {k};

External = {p1, p2, p4};

Propagators = {-k, -(k + p1), -(k + p1 + p2), -(k + p1 + p2 + p4)};

Replacements = {p1 -> 0, p2 -> 0, p4 -> 0, p1 p2 -> -S/2,
p2 p4 -> -T/2, p1 p4 -> (S + T)/2, S -> 1, T -> 1};

WriteRules[list, "box"];

Now if we run the task again on a clean kernel with

Get["FIRE_4.0.0.m"];

LoadSBases[‘‘box’’,2];

Burn[];

LoadRules[‘‘box’’,2];

F[2,{2,2,2,2}];

then we will obtain a result with two master-integrals. Or if we already have a result, we can run

list=GetII / IrreducibleIntegrals[];

res=res/.FindRules[list];

As a second example, let us briefly characterize the situation with the master integrals corresponding to the three families associated with the master integrals Baikov:2010hf () – see Fig. 1. When we work with the families individually, using either LiteRed or FIRE, we encounter 18, 16 and 21 master integrals, correspondingly. Let us, for definiteness, choose the family associated with as the main family. Then tsort shows that 12 of 16 master integrals of the family and 16 of 21 master integrals of the family can be mapped to the family. Moreover, 2 master integrals of the family can be mapped to the family. Altogether, there are 25 master integrals in the union of these three families. The three missing master integrals in the whole family of four-loop massless propagator integrals are simpler factorisable integrals – see Baikov:2010hf ().

As one can see, in order to find extra relations between supposed master integrals, one has to have a list of them. In order to create such a list, one has to perform a reduction. In order to make this reduction fast enough one needs the knowledge of equivalence relations between master integrals. To get out from this loop (if everything is too slow) we suggest first running sample reduction jobs with integrals simpler than the ones required for the physical calculation. After that one obtains a subset of master integrals, finds equivalents between them and then runs jobs that are more complicated. This procedure can be repeated iteratively.

One problem is that this canonical form approach cannot work properly with integrals with irreducible numerators (negative indices). In order to have a list that has only integrals with dots, one can use the MakeMaster command as explained earlier, marking all integrals with one dot (or even two or three dots) as preferred for being masters in problematic sectors.

Let us emphasize that this code tsort can effectively be applied even within one family of Feynman integrals, while the next two tools are more important when dealing with two and more families.

5.2 Using symmetries to find extra relations

Let us consider the diagram of Fig. 2a with the external momentum at .

Figure 2: The integral (a) and the auxiliary diagram (b) used for its reduction. Solid (dotted) lines denote massive (massless) propagators, the external momentum is at .

This is an integral with the numerator where is the momentum of the massless line. It is denoted by in Laporta:1996mq () and belongs to the set of the master integrals contributing to the three-loop factor. It was present, in addition to the corresponding master integral without numerator. Indeed, if one runs an IBP reduction for such integral with numerators one obtains two master integrals in the upper sector, i.e. with positive four indices associated with the propagators. Later it was observed in Laporta:1997zy () that is a linear combination of the integrals and (or, and in the notation of Laporta:1997zy ()). This linear connection was present in Laporta:1997zy () with the coefficient at expanded in up to a certain power, rather than exactly at general dimension . In Lee:2010ik () this relation was presented at general :

(5)

In the notation of Lee:2010ik (), we have and .

The relation (5) can be derived using a symmetry of Feynman integrals. In the case of Feynman integrals connected with no symmetry can help to reduce the number of the master integrals and we have two master integrals in the highest sector. However, if our goal is to reduce the number of master integrals for several families of Feynman integrals considered together we can profit from a symmetry. To reduce it is enough to consider the family of Feynman integrals corresponding to the graph Fig. 2b. In particular, we have . However this relation is automatically satisfied after applying an IBP reduction. It turns out that the missing relation can be revealed at the next level of indices: if we reduce to the master integrals we indeed obtain an equation which leads to (5).

5.3 Using differentiation to find extra relations

Let us turn to one more way to obtain extra relations between master integrals

Figure 3: A two-loop diagram with the masses (a) and the auxiliary diagram (b) used for its reduction. Dotted, thick and thin lines denote propagators with the masses and , correspondingly. The external momentum is at .

using the diagram of Fig.3a considered at as an example.

In Kalmykov:2011yy () it was shown that a linear combination of the three master integral in the highest sector of the family of integrals associated with Fig.3a is a function which is expressed in terms of gamma functions at general . It was observed that this function is given by a two-loop vacuum diagram with two zero masses. This analysis was based on explicit representations of Feynman integrals for Fig.3a in terms of hypergeometric functions and recurrence relation between hypergeometric functions. Later such relation was derived in Kniehl:2012hn () using a trick with an introduction of an auxiliary mass and, in Kalmykov:2012rr () using recurrence relations between MB integrals representing Fig.3a.

It turns out that this extra relation can be derived using IBP reduction and differentiation with respect to . Similarly to the previous example, let us consider a diagram with one more propagator depicted in Fig.3b. Using the numbering in this figure let us consider . First, we reduce it to master integrals. (In order to solve IBP relations, we need to introduce a fifth index connected with an extra irredcible numerator. However, it does not appear in the relations that follow.) Second, we use the fact that . So, we reduce to master integrals and equate the difference between the corresponding result and the derivative of the result of reduction of . We straightforwardly arrive at the relation

(6)

which is noting but the additional relation of Kalmykov:2011yy ().

6 Fire works slowly. Why?

There can be multiple reasons.

6.1 Proper input

Be sure to provide proper input for FIRE. To do that, one has to keep in mind that one has to specify

  • A complete set of IBP’s. If one provides less IBP’s than expected, the code will result in multiple extra master integrals and work very slowly.

  • Boundary conditions. Either specify them with the RESTRICTIONS setting, or run Prepare with AutoDetectRestrictions->True. In the second case one might skip some boundary conditions, specify the remaining trivial sectors manually if needed (see Section 3.1).

    If there are trivial sectors, that are not marked as trivial, FIRE will finally detect that they are trivial, however it takes really much time.

  • Global symmetries. Specifying proper global symmetries might increase the reduction speed a lot. However, please, keep in mind that one should specify not only generators of the symmetry group, but all non-trivial permutations.

  • A proper syntax to evaluate multiple Feynman integrals of a given family is the EvaluateAndSave command. Do not try to calculate them one by one with the F[…] syntax.

6.2 Reduction bases

  • Building reduction bases automatically might speed up things a lot. Do not forget about the BuildAll command. The result also depends on the way the IBP’s are chosen. It is always correct, but the number of sectors where the bases are constructed can differ. A “rule of the thumb” to produce best IBP’s is the following: choose (partially intersecting) loops on the Feynman diagram and corresponding loop momenta. Now when one is differentiating by some loop momenta, try to multiply only by momenta going through lines in the corresponding loop.

  • Using the new LiteRed package together with FIRE speeds up reduction a lot. The LiteRed package has to be downloaded separately and used to create reduction bases that can be used from within FIRE.

6.3 Computer issues

The Mathematica version of FIRE cannot work in parallel mode, hence the number of cores does not influence reduction speed. The amount of RAM is much more important for efficient reduction. One has no analyze the job and monitor whether it runs out of RAM. If so, one has to specify a higher DatabaseUsage setting, set a MemoryLimit or think of moving to another computer.

If working already with a nonzero DatabaseUsage one has to provide a proper path for storing the database. If one is working on a cluster machine, he/she should definitely set this path to be a local hard disk and not a disk somewhere on the network. The hard disk should also be big enough and fast enough and preferably not used by other processes. An SSD (solid state drive) is also a good choice.

While one uses the database, the operating system usually caches a part of it in RAM. This needs less RAM than with direct RAM usage and after the RAM is completely filled with cache, the program is not going to become too slow (as it happens with swapping). However, a certain performance degradation happens after this point.

One should also keep in mind that long calculations should better not be launched within the Mathematica frontend. A batch job is recommended. Or if one is using a personal computer, he can at least launch the Mathematica kernel with the math command and run the job from out of there.

6.4 Extra master integrals

If the reduction goes fast enough, but it takes too much time to perform the final substitutions, then this is the problem with extra master integrals. They have to be somehow related with each other to make the reduction faster. The details have been explained in Section 5.

7 Conclusion

In this paper we presented a new version of FIRE, a program used to perform reduction of Feynman integrals to master integrals. This version has some tools such as tsort Pak:2011xt () by Pak already inside, but we also recommend to use it in conjunction with the LiteRed Lee:2012cn () package by Lee. This paper can be also considered as a user guide on how to use them together in an efficient manner.

In future we are planning to release a c++ version of FIRE that is currently in development stage. All the approaches listed in this paper can also be used in c++ FIRE so that everything is going to be compatible.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research through grant 11-02-01196. The work of V.S. was also supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. We are greateful to Pavel Baikov, Konstantin Chetyrkin, Roman Lee, Alexey Pak and Matthias Steinhauser for helpful discussions and careful reading of draft versions of this paper.

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