Complete bounded holomorphic curves immersed in
with arbitrary genus
In [MUY], a complete holomorphic immersion of the unit disk into whose image is bounded was constructed. In this paper, we shall prove existence of complete holomorphic null immersions of Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus and finite topology, whose image is bounded in . To construct such immersions, we apply the method in [L] to perturb the genus zero example in [MUY] changing its genus.
As an analogue the above construction, we also give a new method to construct complete bounded minimal immersions (resp. weakly complete maximal surface) with arbitrary genus and finite topology in Euclidean 3-space (resp. Lorentz-Minkowski 3-spacetime).
In [MUY], the authors constructed a complete bounded minimal immersion of the unit disk into whose conjugate is also bounded. As applications of our results, we show in this paper that the technique developed by F. J. López in [L] can be suitably modified to give the following three things:
The first examples of complete bounded complex submanifolds with arbitrary genus immersed in ;
A new and simple method to construct complete, bounded minimal surfaces with arbitrary genus in the Euclidean 3-space;
A method to construct weakly complete, bounded maximal surfaces with arbitrary genus in the Lorentz-Minkowski 3-spacetime.
Actually, a complete and bounded conformal minimal immersion of into whose conjugate is also bounded is the real part of a complete and bounded null holomorphic immersion
As it was shown in [MUY], if we consider the projection
the map gives a complete bounded complex submanifold immersed in . By a perturbation of , considering a similar deformation like in [L], we shall prove the following
Let be a closed Riemann surface. For an arbitrary positive integer , there exist points , , …, on , neighborhoods of which are homeomorphic to the unit disc , and a holomorphic immersion
which is complete and bounded.
If we do not specify the choice of with the fixed arbitrary genus, we can choose so that the number of ends is at most (see [L, Lemma 3]).
Among other things, López in [L] gave a method to construct complete minimal surfaces between two parallel planes of arbitrary genus. He constructed these examples as a perturbation of the minimal disk given by Jorge and Xavier in [JX]. However, the global boundedness was not treated in [L], because López’ technique is not of use when you apply it directly to Nadirashvili’s minimal disk [N]. So, the aim of this paper is to introduce some simple but appropriate changes in López’ machinery in order to obtain complete bounded minimal surfaces with nontrivial topology. Also the deformation parameter given in [L] is not sufficient to kill the periods of the holomorphic immersions in , and so we must consider another deformation space and calculate the new periods.
On the other hand, the proof of the above theorem allow us to conclude that
Let be a closed Riemann surface. For an arbitrary positive integer , there exist points ,…, on , neighborhoods of which are homeomorphic to the unit disc , and a complete conformal minimal immersion into the Euclidean -space (resp. a weakly complete maximal surface in the sense of [UY3], which may have singular points, whose first fundamental form is conformal on the regular set, in the Lorentz-Minkowski -spacetime )
whose image is bounded.
Though general methods to produce bounded complete minimal immersions into with higher genus are already known (cf. [AFM], [FMM], [LMM1] and [LMM2] ), this corollary gives a new and short way to construct such examples. On the other hand, for a maximal surface in , this corollary produces the first examples of weakly complete bounded maximal surfaces with arbitrary genus. The weak completeness of maximal surfaces, which may admit certain kind of singularities was defined in [UY3]. In [A] a weakly complete disk satisfying a certain kind of boundedness was given. After that, a bounded example of genus zero with one end was shown in [MUY].
Finally, we remark that the technique in this paper does not produce bounded null holomorphic curves immersed in with arbitrary genus because of the difficulty in obtaining the required deformation parameters. If we do succeed to find an example, the above three examples could be all realized as projections of it. So it is still an open problem to show the existence of complete bounded null holomorphic immersion into with arbitrary genus.
Let be a compact Riemann surface of genus , and fix a point . Let
be the Weierstrass gap series at , that is, there exists a meromorphic function on which is holomorphic on such that is the pole of order if and only if . Then there exists a meromorphic function on which is holomorphic on and is the pole of order (). Let be the set of branch points of . Then the divisor of is written as
where () are positive integers, and the divisor is expressed by the multiplication of these branch points.
Denoting by and the (first) holomorphic de Rham cohomology group of and (as the vector space of holomorphic differentials on factored by the subspace of exact holomorphic differentials), respectively, then
hold, where we set, for the sake of simplicity,
Take a basis of .
Lemma 2.2 (cf. III.5.13 in [F]).
One can take a basis of
where is a meromorphic -form on which is holomorphic on , and is a pole of order , and is a meromorphic -form on which is holomorphic on , and and are poles of order .
For simplicity, we set
Then () is a basis of .
Lemma 2.3 ([L, Lemma 1]).
There exists a meromorphic function on with the following properties:
is holomorphic on ,
is a pole of whose order is greater than or equal to , and
is a pole of whose order is greater than .
For each , let be a meromorphic function on which is holomorphic on , and so that is a pole of order . On the other hand, take a meromorphic function on which is holomorphic on and is a pole of order . Then is a desired one. ∎
Lemma 2.4 ([L, Section 3]).
The function as in (2.6) is a meromorphic function on such that
is holomorphic on ,
if , is nonconstant on , and
if , has poles at .
and consider the unit sphere in the space of :
The following assertion is a modification of [L, Lemma 2], which is much easier to prove. For our purpose, this weaker assertion is sufficient.
Let be a point in satisfying . Then there exist and a neighborhood of in such that if and , the set is conformally equivalent to a compact surface of genus minus pairwise disjoint discs with analytic regular boundaries. In particular, there are no branch points of on the boundary .
Since the poles of are exactly , …, and , for sufficiently small , the inverse image of the unit disk by is homeomorphic to a compact surface of genus minus pairwise disjoint discs with piecewise analytic boundaries. Moreover, since the set of branch points of does not have any accumulation points, has no branch points for sufficiently small , and consists of real analytic regular curves in .
Furthermore, since , are holomorphic near , …, for any which is sufficiently close to . Thus has the same properties as . ∎
We define the period matrix as
which is a nondegenerate matrix.
3. Proof of the main theorem
In this section, we give a proof of Theorem A in the introduction.
The initial immersion
Let be a complete holomorphic null immersion whose image is bounded in (as in Theorem A in [MUY]), where is the unit disk. We write
where is a canonical coordinate on and () are holomorphic functions on . Since is null, it holds that
Let be the Weierstrass data of , that is,
Let be a null holomorphic immersion as in (3.1) whose image is not contained in any plane. Then there exists a point and a complex orthogonal transformation in ( is the transpose of ) such that, up to replacing by , the following properties hold:
and , where ,
Moreover, if is complete and bounded, then so is .
We shall now assume our initial satisfies the three properties above, and set by a coordinate change of .
Proof of Lemma 3.1.
Since the image of is not contained in any plane, at least one of , and , say , is not constant. Then we can take such that and . Moreover, if or vanishes identically, this contradicts that the image of is not contained in any plane. So we may also assume that
When , we replace by , where is the linear map associated with a complex orthogonal matrix
holds. In particular, it holds that .
Next we prove the boundedness and completeness of under the assumption that is complete and bounded. Since is bounded and is continuous, and are both contained in the closed ball in of a certain radius centered at the origin. We denote by the canonical metric on , and consider the pull-back metric by . Now we apply the following Lemma 3.1 in [MUY] for in . Then there exist positive numbers and () such that on . Now, we consider the pull back of the metric and by the immersion . Since
we have that
on . Since is complete, is a complete Riemannian metric on . Then the above relation implies that is also a complete Riemannian metric on , that is, is also a complete immersion. ∎
A family of holomorphic immersions
and take a meromorphic function as in (2.6). Define a meromorphic function as
and Weierstrass data on as
where is the meromorphic function as in (2.2), and define holomorphic -forms on as
As in the equations (15) and (17) in [L], there exists a positive constant () such that
Then, (setting )
Thus we have the conclusion. ∎
Thus, for each (sufficiently small) , there exists a complete null immersion
where denotes the universal cover of . In fact, the line integral () from a base point depends on the choice of the path, but can be considered as a single-valued function on .
Then we get the following assertion, which can be proven exactly in the same way as Corollary B in [MUY]:
Let be the projection as in (1.1). Then is a complete immersion of into .
The period map
Under the situations above, we define the period map
Suppose that satisfies the three conditions as in Lemma 3.1. Then the matrix
By the definitions, we have
for . Then
where . Hence we have
where ’s are holomorphic functions on as in (3.3). Similarly, we have
at . Thus, we have that
hold at , for . Hence the matrix in (3.9) is written as
The period-killing problem
Since , Proposition 3.4 yields that there exists a holomorphic map such that
for sufficient small . We set
Since , there exists an analytic function such that near . Now we can apply Proposition 2.5 to . Then, for sufficiently small , is conformally equivalent to minus pairwise disjoint discs with analytic regular boundaries, and the map
is well-defined on . Moreover, by Corollary 3.3, is a complete immersion for any sufficient small .
By Proposition 2.5, does not vanish on for sufficiently small . Then if we choose a real number sufficiently close to , we have
where . Moreover, is exactly a union of closed annular domains surrounding the points in . To show the boundedness of , it is sufficient to show that the image of each annular domain by is bounded. For the sake of simplicity, we show the boundedness of at . We denote by the closed annular domain surrounding the point . Then
gives a holomorphic finite covering.
Since is compact and is holomorphic, there exists a positive constant such that
We denote by the set of interior points of , and fix arbitrarily. Let () be a line segment such that and , that is,
Since is a covering map, there exists a unique smooth curve such that and . Moreover, there exists a neighborhood of the line segment and a holomorphic map which gives the (local) inverse of . By definition, we have . We set
that is, lies on the connected component of which is further from , see Figure 1.
By (3.13), it is sufficient to show that
is bounded from above by a constant which does not depend on . Here we have
Here we used the relations and . To estimate , we shall apply Lemma A.1 in the appendix for
Let us check the hypotheses:
where as in (3.1). Since is bounded, is bounded for all . On the other hand,