Star clusters in M33

An updated catalog of M33 clusters and candidates: photometry, and some statistical results

Jun Ma,11affiliation: National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012, China 22affiliation: Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China majun@nao.cas.cn
Abstract

We present photometry for 392 star clusters and candidates in the field of M33, which are selected from the most recent star cluster catalog. In this catalog, the authors listed star clusters’ parameters such as cluster positions, magnitudes and colors in the filters, and so on. However, a large fraction of objects in this catalog do not have previously published photometry. Photometry is performed using archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg along the major axis of M33. Detailed comparisons show that, in general, our photometry is consistent with previous measurements. Positions (right ascension and declination) for some clusters are corrected here. Combined with previous literature, we constitute a large sample of M33 star clusters. Based on this cluster sample, we present some statistical results: none of the M33 youngest clusters ( yr) have masses approaching  ; roughly half the star clusters are consistent with the to   mass models; the continuous distribution of star clusters along the model line indicates that M33 star clusters have been formed continuously from the epoch of the first star cluster formation until recent times; there are star clusters which being overlapped with the Galactic globular clusters on the color-color diagram, and these clusters are old globular clusters candidates in M33.

Subject headings:
catalogs – galaxies: individual (M33) – galaxies: spiral – galaxies: star clusters
slugcomment: AJ, in press

1. Introduction

The importance of the study of star clusters is difficult to overstate, especially in the Local Group galaxies. Star clusters, which represent, in distinct and luminous “packets”, single-age and single-abundance points and encapsulate at least a partial history of the parent galaxy’s evolution, can provide a unique laboratory for studying the ongoing and past star formation in the parent galaxy.

M33 is a small Scd Local Group galaxy, about 15 times farther from us than the LMC (distance modulus ; McConnachie et al. 2004, 2005). It is interesting and important because it represents a morphological type intermediate between the largest “early-type” spirals and the dwarf irregulars in the Local Group. So, it can provide an important link between the cluster populations of earlier-type spirals (Milky Way and M31) and the numerous, nearby later-type dwarf galaxies.

Although in the work of M31 globular clusters, Hubble (1932) remarked that he discovered some twenty or fifteen diffuse objects in M33 and remarked that they averaged about 1.5 mag fainter than the globular clusters in M31, Hiltner (1960) did the pioneering work of M33 star clusters. In his work, Hiltner (1960) used photographic plates taken with the Mt. Wilson 100 inch (2.5 m) telescope to photometer 23 M33 cluster candidates and 23 M31 globular clusters in the passbands, and found that, except for five ones, the clusters in M33 are bluer and fainter than those in M31. At the same time, Kron & Mayall (1960) did photoelectric observations for 4 M33 star clusters. And then, Melnick & D’Odorico (1978) detected 58 star clusters in M33 based on a baked IIIa-J+GG385 plate which covering a field of about one degree in diameter. The most comprehensive catalog of nonstellar objects in M33 was compiled by Christian & Schommer (1982, 1988), who detected 250 nonstellar objects by visually examining a single photographic plate taken at the Ritchey-Chrestien focus of the 4 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and obtained ground-based , , and photometry of 106 of these objects, for which they believe to be star clusters. Recently, Mochejska et al. (1998) detected 51 globular cluster candidates in M33, 32 of which were not previously cataloged, using the data collected in the DIRECT project (Kaluzny et al., 1998; Stanek et al., 1998). Since the pioneering work of Chandar et al. (1999a), the era of detecting and studying M33 star clusters based on the images with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has begun (Chandar et al., 1999a, b, c, 2001, 2002; Bedin et al., 2005; Park & Lee, 2007; Sarajedini et al., 2007; Stonkutė et al., 2008; Huxor et al., 2009; San Roman et al., 2009; Zloczewski & Kaluzny, 2009). Ma et al. (2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2004a, 2004b) constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 13 intermediate filters of the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) photometric system for known M33 clusters and candidates from Melnick & D’Odorico (1978), Chandar et al. (1999a, 2001) and Mochejska et al. (1998), and estimated cluster properties. In order to construct a single master catalog incorporating the entries in all of the individual catalogs including all known properties of each cluster, Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) merged all of the above-mentioned catalogs before 2007, for a summary of the properties of all of these catalogs. This catalog contains 451 candidates, of which 255 are confirmed clusters based on HST and high-resolution ground-based imaging. The positions of the clusters in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) were transformed to the J2000.0 epoch and refined using the Local Group Galaxies Survey (LGGS; Massey et al. 2006). In addition, some authors used the images observed with the MegaCam camera on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT/MegaCam) to detect star clusters in M33 (Zloczewski et al., 2008; San Roman, 2010); Sharina et al. (2010) presented the evolutionary parameters of 15 GCs in M33 based on the results of medium-resolution spectroscopy obtained at the Special Astrophysical Observatory 6-m telescope. Most recently, Cockcroft et al. (2011) search for outer halo star clusters in M33 based on CFHT/MegaCam imaging as part of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS).

As Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) pointed out that, the photometry of M33 clusters and cluster candidates are from the various original catalogs which are all on different zero points. In addition, more than 160 clusters and cluster candidates do not possess any photometric data in the M33 adopted cluster catalog of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007). So, it is important to provide photometry for these clusters and cluster candidates of M33 which being without any photometric data, and it is also important to provide photometry for clusters and cluster candidates of M33 in the same photometric system.

In this paper, we perform aperture photometry of 392 M33 star clusters and cluster candidates based on the LGGS images of M33. These sample clusters are selected from the M33 adopted cluster catalog of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007). This paper is organized as follows. §2 describes the sample selection and photometry. In §3, we present an analysis of the cluster properties. Lastly, our conclusions are presented in §4.

2. Data

2.1. Sample

We selected our sample star clusters and cluster candidates from the M33 adopted cluster catalog of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), which is a compilation of photometry and identifications from many previous catalogs. This catalog contains precise cluster positions (right ascension and declination), magnitudes and colors in the filters, metallicities, radial velocities, masses and ages, where available, and galactocentric distances for each cluster. However, from this catalog, we can see that, for more than 160 objects there are not any photometric data. So, homogeneous photometric data are urgently needed. We used archival images of M33 from the LGGS available from their ftp site 111ftp://ftp.lowell.edu/pub/massey/lgsurvey/datarelease/, which covers a region of 0.8 deg along the galaxy’s major axis. The images we used consist of 3 separate but overlapping fields with a scale from 0.261pixel at the center to 0.258pixel in the corners of each image. The field of view of each mosaic image is . The observations were taken from August 2000 to September 2002 with the KPNO 4 m telescope. The median seeing of the LGGS images is 1. We employed iraf/daofind to find the sources in the images and match them to the coordinates of the M33 adopted cluster catalog of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007). In this paper, we will perform photometry for star clusters and cluster candidates in the M33 adopted cluster catalog of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), in which there are 393 star clusters and cluster candidates. To prevent mistakes, we checked each object visually in the images. Except for 3 objects (8, 287 and 417), the coordinates presented by Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) are of sufficient accuracy to make the objects be easily discernible. For objects 8 and 287, the offsets of the coordinates presented by Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) and this paper are and (For object 8, its R.A. and REC are 01:32:41.27 and +30:27:51.9 (J2000.0) presented by Sarajedini & Mancone [2007] compared to 01:32:41.273 and +30:27:54.76 (J2000.0) given here; for object 287, its R.A. and REC are 01:34:03.34 and +30:48:28.0 presented by Sarajedini & Mancone [2007] compared to 01:34:03.311 and +30:48:26.73 (J2000.0) given here), respectively. For object 417, i.e. U139 of Christian & Schommer (1982), its R.A. and REC listed by Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) are 01:34:36.92 and +30:03:47.6 (J2000.0), which falls the outside of the region covered by the LGGS images, however, its R.A. and REC listed by Christian & Schommer (1982) are 01:29:47 and +30:12:44 (J1950.0), i.e. 01:32:35.88 and +30:28:07.96 (J2000.0). The offset of these two sets of coordinates given by Christian & Schommer (1982) and Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) is too large. So, the R.A. and REC of object 417 presented by Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) may be typing error. Based on the original R.A. and REC listed by Christian & Schommer (1982), we found that only one object exits within , so it is reasonable that this object is U139 of Christian & Schommer (1982), whose R.A. and REC derived based on the LGGS images are 01:32:35.786 and +30:28:09.16 (J2000.0). In addition, according to the R.A. and REC presented by Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), object 268 and 269 is the same source. We delete number 268. So, the last sample of this paper includes 392 star clusters and cluster candidates of M33, which are selected from the M33 adopted cluster catalog of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007). Figure 1 shows the spatial distribution of the 392 objects in the LGGS fields. The large ellipse is the boundary of the M33 disk (de Vaucouleurs et al., 1991). The 3 large squares are the LGGS field boundaries.

Figure 1.— Spatial distribution of the 392 star clusters and cluster candidates of M33 which being selected from Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) and their loci in the LGGS fields. We determined the photometry for these objects based on the LGGS archival images of M33 in the bands. The large ellipse is the boundary of the M33 disk (de Vaucouleurs et al., 1991). The three large squares are the LGGS fields.

2.2. Integrated photometry

We used the LGGS archival images of M33 in the bands to perform photometry. Previously, Massey et al. (2006) compiled point-spread-function (PSF) photometry for 146,622 stars (point sources) in the M33 fields, with photometric uncertainties of % below mag. However, there is as yet no published LGGS photometry for extended sources, such as star clusters and galaxies.

We performed aperture photometry of these 392 M33 star clusters and cluster candidates found in the LGGS images in all of the bands to provide a comprehensive and homogeneous photometric catalog for these objects. The photometry routine we used is iraf/daophot (Stetson, 1987). To determine the total luminosity of each cluster, we produced curve of growth from -band photometry obtained through apertures with radii in the range 3-40 pixel with 1 pixel increments. These were used to determine the aperture size required to enclose the total cluster light. The most appropriate photometric radius that includes all light from the objects, but excludes (as much as possible and to the extent that this was obvious) extraneous field stars is adopted. Figure 2 shows curves of growth for 8 clusters selected randomly according to luminosity. In Figure 2, the most appropriate photometric radius needed for photometry is indicated by triangles. In addition, we have checked the aperture of every sample object considered here by visual examination to make sure that it was large enough to include all light from this object, but not too large (to avoid contamination from other sources). The local sky background was measured in an annulus with an inner radius which being larger 1 pixel than photometric radius and 5 pixels wide, in which the mode was used. The instrumental magnitudes were then calibrated to the standard Johnson-Kron-Cousins system by comparing the published magnitudes of stars from Massey et al. (2006), who calibrated their photometry with standard stars of Landolt (1992), with our instrumental magnitudes. Since the magnitudes in Massey et al. (2006) are given in the Vega system, our photometry is also tied to that system. Finally, except for object 216 in band, which falls in the gap of the image, we obtained photometry for 392 objects in the individual bands. Table 1 lists our new magnitudes and the aperture radii used (We adopted 0.258pixel from the image header.), with errors given by iraf/daophot. The object names follow the naming convention of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007).

Figure 2.— Curves of growth for 8 clusters of M33 selected randomly according to luminosity. Triangles indicate the radii of the apertures needed for the photometry.

To examine the quality and reliability of our photometry, we compared the aperture magnitudes of the 392 objects considered here with the magnitudes collected from various sources in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), and with previous measurements in Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). There are 18 clusters, of which the magnitude scatters in band between this and previous studies (Sarajedini & Mancone, 2007; Park & Lee, 2007; San Roman et al., 2009) are larger than 1.0 mag, i.e. our aperture magnitudes are fainter than previous measurements in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). We listed these objects in Table 2, and we also plotted images of these objects in Figure 3. The circles are photometric apertures adopted here. From this figure, we can see that most of these objects (44, 45, 66, 116, 118, 153, 195, 221, 231, 250, 253, 276, 338, and 367) are very close to one or more bright sources. If photometric apertures are larger than the values adopted here, the light from these bright sources will not be excluded. The object 46 is really faint. As we know, for objects in crowed fields or for faint objects, different aperture sizes adopted for photometry would cause a large scatter in the photometric measurement. In fact, from Table 2, we can see that, for some star clusters (45, 66, 193, 195, 221, 231, 250, and 367), the photometric measurements obtained by Park & Lee (2007) are also very different from the photometric data collected by Sarajedini & Mancone (2007). In Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), the photometric data, which are collected from various original catalogs and are on different zeropoints, are transformed to the reference system of Chandar et al. (1999a, 2001) by applying offsets derived from objects in common between the relevant catalog and the data set of Chandar et al. (1999a, 2001). Chandar et al. (1999a, 2001) derived or photometry of M33 star clusters based on images taken with HST/WPC2 with an aperture of for magnitude measurement and an aperture of for the measurement of color. In Park & Lee (2007), integrated aperture photometry of M33 star clusters, which are included in field of M33 based on CCD images taken with the CFH12k mosaic camera at the CFHT, are derived with an aperture of for magnitude measurement and an aperture of for the measurement of color. San Roman et al. (2009) derived integrated photometry and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for 161 star clusters in M33, using the Advanced Camera For Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) onboard the HST. These authors adopted an aperture radius of for magnitude measurements and for the colors. For these 18 sources, the large magnitude scatters in band between this and previous studies (Sarajedini & Mancone, 2007; Park & Lee, 2007; San Roman et al., 2009) come from different photometric aperture sizes adopted by different authors.

Figures 4, 5 and 6 show the comparison of our photometry of the clusters considered here with previous photometric data in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), with previous photometric measurements in Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). Objects 46, 116, and 193 are not included in the figure of comparison of Figure 4 because of too large values of to be drawn in the figure. The photometric offsets and rms scatter of the differences between previous measurements and our new magnitudes are summarized in Tables 3, 4 and 5.

Figure 3.— Finding charts of 18 star clusters and candidates of M33 in the LGGS band, of which the magnitude scatters in band between this and those studies of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009) are larger than 1.0 mag, i.e. our measurements are fainter than those in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). The circles are photometric apertures adopted in this paper.

Figure 4.— Comparisons of our photometry of M33 star clusters and candidates in the bands with previous measurements being collected in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007).

Figure 5.— Comparisons of our photometry of M33 star clusters and candidates in the bands with previous photometry in Park & Lee (2007).

Figure 6.— Comparisons of our photometry of M33 star clusters and candidates in the bands with previous photometry in San Roman et al. (2009).

From Figures 4, 5 and 6 and Tables 3, 4 and 5, we can see that, our measurements in band get systematically fainter than the photometric data in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), and the photometric measurements in Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009) for fainter sources (). Except for the difference between this study and those of Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009), which turned out to be with and with , both the and colors obtained here are in good agreement with those in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). For the colors obtained by San Roman et al. (2009), we will discuss them in §3.2 and 3.3.

To check whether and how seriously aperture variations affect the photometric measurements, we performed test with the same size aperture for all objects considered here. We chose (corresponding to 13 pixels in the LGGS images) as a radius for obtaining photometric magnitudes of objects considered here. This aperture size is nearly in between and , which are chosen to obtain magnitude measurements of M33 star clusters by Chandar et al. (1999a, 2001) and San Roman et al. (2009), and Park & Lee (2007), respectively. Figures 7, 8 and 9 show the comparison of our photometry of the clusters considered here with previous photometric data collected by Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), and with previous photometry of Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). Tables 6, 7 and 8 summarize photometric offsets and rms scatter of the differences between previous measurements and our new magnitudes. It is evident that the photometries obtained with a radius of agree good with those in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). From Figures 7, 8 and 9 and Tables 6, 7 and 8, we can see that, except for the difference between our study and those of Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009), which turned out to be with and with , both the and colors and magnitudes obtained here are in good agreement with previous photometric measurements in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009), and there are no evident difference between the photometric zeropoint here as compared with Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). There are 10 clusters, of which the magnitude scatters in band between this study and those of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009) are larger than one magnitude, i.e. our photometric measurements are fainter or brighter than those in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). By comparing Table 2 with Table 9, we find that, except for object 196, the magnitude of which is nearly not dependent on aperture size, the magnitudes of other common objects (46, 193, 195, and 231 ) decrease with aperture sizes. For objects 90 and 132 in Table 9, the magnitudes obtained with an aperture radius of here are all brighter than previous measurements, however, for object 426 in Table 9, the photometric magnitude obtained with an aperture radius of here is still fainter than previous measurements in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) and Park & Lee (2007). For objects 132, 193, 231, 240 and 426, our photometric measurements are in good agreement with those of Park & Lee (2007). In addition, for object 236, our photometric measurement is in agreement with that of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007), but is brighter than that of Park & Lee (2007). We also note that, in Table 9, there are only 3 objects (90, 195, and 236), of which the magnitude scatters between this study and that of Park & Lee (2007) are larger than 1.0 mag.

Figure 7.— Comparisons of our photometry of M33 star clusters and candidates in the bands with previous measurements being collected in Sarajedini & Mancone (2007). Photometries of M33 star clusters are derived with an aperture of (13 pixels) in this paper.

Figure 8.— Comparisons of our photometry of M33 star clusters and candidates in the bands with previous photometry in Park & Lee (2007). Photometries of M33 star clusters are derived with an aperture of (13 pixels) in this paper.

Figure 9.— Comparisons of our photometry of M33 star clusters and candidates in the bands with previous photometry in San Roman et al. (2009). Photometries of M33 star clusters are derived with an aperture of (13 pixels) in this paper.

3. Statistical properties of M33 star clusters

3.1. Sample

Our statistical sample contains 521 confirmed M33 star clusters, of which 254 have photometry obtained here, 35 have photometry obtained by Park & Lee (2007), 117 have photometry obtained by San Roman et al. (2009), and 115 have photometry obtained by Zloczewski & Kaluzny (2009). These star clusters were confirmed based on the HST or high-resolution ground-based imaging (see Sarajedini & Mancone, 2007; Park & Lee, 2007; San Roman et al., 2009; Zloczewski & Kaluzny, 2009, for details). Figure 10 shows the spatial distribution of the 521 confirmed M33 star clusters. The large ellipse is the boundary of the M33 disk (de Vaucouleurs et al., 1991).

Figure 10.— Spatial distribution of the 406 confirmed stat clusters in M33. Blue crosses denote the star clusters in this study, green squares denote the star clusters in Park & Lee (2007), red open circles denote the star clusters in San Roman et al. (2009), and black crosses denote the star clusters in Zloczewski & Kaluzny (2009). The large ellipse is the boundary of the M33 disk (de Vaucouleurs et al., 1991).

3.2. Color-magnitude diagram

The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) provides a qualitative model-independent global indication of cluster-formation history that can be compared between galaxies, because and are reasonably good age indicators, at least between young and old populations, with a secondary dependence on metallicity (Chandar et al., 1999b). CMDs of M33 clusters have been previously discussed in the literature (Christian & Schommer, 1982, 1988; Chandar et al., 1999b; Park & Lee, 2007). However, with a much larger cluster sample, it is worth investigating them again. Figure 11 displays the integrated and CMDs of the sample star clusters of M33. The absolute magnitudes of the star clusters were derived for the adopted distance modulus of obtained by Galleti et al. (2004). The interstellar extinction curve, , is taken from Cardelli et al. (1989), . For reddening values of the star clusters, we used those in Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009). For star clusters, Park & Lee (2007) and San Roman et al. (2009) did not present their reddening values, we adopted a uniform value of , as typical of the published values for the line-of-sight reddenings to M33 as Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) adopted. Below each CMD in Figure 11 we have plotted the cluster distribution in color space. To the right of each CMD in Figure 11 we have shown a histogram of the clusters’ absolute magnitudes.

From Figure 11, we can see that, the star clusters are roughly separated into blue and red groups with a color boundary of in the CMD (vertical dashed line). This feature is also found by Park & Lee (2007) with a smaller sample. In fact, Figure 6 of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) also shows this color separation. However, this separation in the CMD is not as clear as in the CMD, which was also shown by Park & Lee (2007). Figure 11 shows that the cluster luminosity function peaks near mag. In addition, there are some very red star clusters, the colors of which are much redder than 1.0 mag: , 1.679, and 1.495 for clusters 116, 279, and 367 according to the photometry here. The colors of clusters 279 and 367 which being named 89 and 214 in Park & Lee (2007), also derived by Park & Lee (2007): 1.597 and 0.521. There is one star cluster, the color of which is much bluer than mag: for 111 of San Roman et al. (2009) according to the photometry of San Roman et al. (2009). We did not derive the photometry for this star cluster. For the colors, there is one star cluster with : cluster 216 of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) according to the photometry here. There is not previous photometry for cluster 216. From Figure 11, we also see that, the faintest star clusters identified so far in M33 are from Zloczewski & Kaluzny (2009), there are about eight star clusters fainter than mag in band.

By adding models to the CMDs, we can obtain a more detailed history of cluster formation. Three fading lines ( as a function of age) of Bruzual & Charlot (2003) for a metallicity of which being thought to be appropriate for M33 star clusters (Chandar et al., 1999b), assuming a Salpeter initial mass function (Salpeter, 1955) with lower and upper-mass cut-offs of and , and using the Padova-1994 evolutionary tracks, are plotted on the CMDs of M33 star clusters for three different total initial masses: , , and  . The majority of M33 star clusters fall between these three fading lines. From Figure 11, we note that none of the youngest clusters ( yr) have masses approaching  , which is consistent with the results of Chandar et al. (1999b). The fading lines show that, qualitatively, roughly half the star clusters here are consistent with the to   mass models. For ages older than yr, some clusters with substantially higher masses are seen. From Figure 11, we can see that, some colors obtained by San Roman et al. (2009) are not consistent with the SSP lines.

Figure 11.— Color-magnitude diagrams of M33 clusters. Crosses represent the clusters in this study, filled circles represent the star clusters in Park & Lee (2007), open circles denote the star clusters in San Roman et al. (2009), and open squares denote the star clusters in Zloczewski & Kaluzny (2009). Fading lines are indicated for clusters with total initial masses of (upper dashed line), , and (lower dashed line) , assuming a Salpeter IMF (see text). Stars along each fading line represent ages of , , , and yr, from top to bottom, respectively. The vertical dashed line marks the approximate color that divides the sample star clusters into young and old populations.

3.3. Color-color diagram

Figure 12.— vs. color-color diagram of star clusters in M33. Crosses represent the clusters in this study, filled circles represent the star clusters in Park & Lee (2007), open circles denote the star clusters in San Roman et al. (2009), and open squares denote the star clusters in Zloczewski & Kaluzny (2009). Green squares are Galactic globular clusters from the on-line data base of Harris (1996) (2010 update). Theoretical evolutionary paths from the SSP model (Bruzual & Charlot 2003) for , (blue dashed line) and , (red solid line) are drawn for every dex in age from to yr. The arrow represents the reddening direction.

Figure 12 shows the integrated versus color-color diagram for M33 star clusters. Galactic globular clusters from the on-line data base of Harris (1996) (2010 update) are also plotted for comparison. We overplotted the theoretical evolutionary path for the single stellar population (SSP; Bruzual & Charlot 2003) for that was appropriate for M33 (Chandar et al., 1999b). For comparison, the evolutionary path of the SSP for is also overlaid.

In general, the star clusters in M33 are located along the sequence that is consistent with the theoretical evolutionary path for , while some are on the redder or bluer side in the color. However, it is noted that most of sample star clusters from San Roman et al. (2009) are above the SSP lines. In addition, compared with the color-color diagram in Park & Lee (2007), we find that the photometry in this study is shifted below the SSP lines more than in Park & Lee (2007), i.e. the sample clusters in this paper are on the redder side in the color. In fact, from Figure 5 and Table 4, we can see that the colors obtained here are redder than those of Park & Lee (2007). From Figure 12, we also find out that, the photometry for the most Galactic globular clusters is also below the SSP lines. The continuous distribution of star clusters along the model line indicates that M33 star clusters have been formed continuously from the epoch of the first star cluster formation until recent times (see also Park & Lee, 2007). In addition, Figure 12 also shows that, some colors obtained by San Roman et al. (2009) are not consistent with the SSP lines.

Based on the integrated versus color-color diagram in Figure 12, we can select old globular cluster candidates in M33 which being overlapped with the Galactic globular clusters. There are star clusters which being overlapped with the Galactic globular clusters that are old globular clusters candidates in M33.

4. Summery and conclusions

In this paper, we present photometric measurements for 392 star clusters and cluster candidates in the field of M33 based on archival images from the LGGS (Massey et al., 2006). These sample star clusters and cluster candidates of M33 are selected from the most recent star cluster catalog of Sarajedini & Mancone (2007) which being compiled based on eight existing catalogs. In this catalog, the authors listed parameters such as cluster positions, magnitudes and colors in the filters, and so on. However, a large fraction of objects in this catalog do not have previously published photometry. So, the photometric measurements in this paper supplement this catalog. Detailed comparisons show that, in general, our photometry is in agreement with previous measurements. Positions (right ascension and declination) for some clusters are corrected here.

Combined with previous literature, we obtained a large sample of M33 star clusters including 521 objects. Based on this sample of M33 star clusters, we present some statistical results:

(1) none of the M33 youngest clusters ( yr) have masses approaching  ;

(2) roughly half the star clusters are consistent with the to   mass models;

(3) the continuous distribution of star clusters along the model line indicates that M33 star clusters have been formed continuously from the epoch of the first star cluster formation until recent times;

(4) there are star clusters which being overlapped with the Galactic globular clusters on the color-color diagram, and these clusters are old globular clusters candidates in M33.

We would like to thank the anonymous referee for providing rapid and thoughtful report that helped improve the original manuscript greatly. This research was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation through grants 10873016 and 10633020, and by National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under grant 2007CB815403.

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Object
mag mag mag mag mag
1………… 20.049 0.019 20.292 0.029 20.123 0.029 20.208 0.036 20.239 0.043 2.064
3………… 21.184 0.053 21.087 0.064 20.419 0.042 20.107 0.041 19.807 0.037 2.322
4………… 20.405 0.024 21.024 0.035 20.755 0.044 20.606 0.051 20.303 0.050 2.322
6………… 20.223 0.035 20.276 0.047 19.767 0.042 19.444 0.038 18.970 0.032 3.096
7………… 17.743 0.010 19.060 0.017 18.871 0.020 18.520 0.019 18.878 0.034 3.870
8………… 20.004 0.028 19.987 0.034 19.594 0.029 19.344 0.025 19.028 0.023 2.580
9………… 17.912 0.007 18.016 0.009 17.609 0.008 17.331 0.007 16.929 0.006 3.612
10………… 19.741 0.028 19.597 0.025 18.780 0.017 18.294 0.016 17.676 0.011 3.096
11………… 20.050 0.020 20.702 0.037 20.628 0.040 20.730 0.046 20.803 0.059 1.548
15………… 18.937 0.015 18.985 0.020 18.512 0.015 18.178 0.013 17.724 0.012 3.354
16………… 19.114 0.010 19.191 0.012 18.842 0.010 18.640 0.011 18.304 0.011 2.580
17………… 20.433 0.052 20.397 0.056 19.681 0.036 19.553 0.039 19.211 0.040 3.096
18………… 20.697 0.023 21.627 0.055 21.541 0.065 21.677 0.070 21.544 0.089 1.032
20………… 20.295 0.026 20.168 0.024 19.694 0.024 19.375 0.023 19.087 0.024 2.838
21………… 18.060 0.014 18.988 0.022 18.738 0.024 18.505 0.019 18.758 0.028 2.838
22………… 20.800 0.026 21.551 0.044 21.384 0.059 21.050 0.059 21.028 0.082 1.548
23………… 19.436 0.017 19.765 0.026 19.545 0.025 19.280 0.024 18.666 0.018 2.064
26………… 18.171 0.007 18.125 0.007 17.752 0.007 17.536 0.007 17.215 0.009 4.128
28………… 20.833 0.035 20.597 0.032 19.840 0.025 19.351 0.021 18.948 0.021 2.838
29………… 19.454 0.013 19.528 0.015 19.273 0.016 19.222 0.019 19.032 0.021 2.580
30………… 19.491 0.016 20.598 0.034 20.624 0.038 20.466 0.036 20.632 0.039 1.032
31………… 20.538 0.042 20.619 0.052 20.070 0.037 19.696 0.031 19.241 0.024 2.322
32………… 18.829 0.010 19.070 0.012 18.787 0.012 18.668 0.014 18.519 0.017 1.806
33………… 20.229 0.030 20.331 0.037 19.880 0.031 19.783 0.037 19.565 0.038 2.064
34………… 20.661 0.037 20.895 0.052 20.356 0.046 19.783 0.036 19.220 0.027 1.806
35………… 17.657 0.006 18.675 0.012 18.592 0.016 18.341 0.016 18.534 0.021 1.806
36………… 19.882 0.026 19.842 0.028 19.443 0.025 19.256 0.025 19.006 0.024 2.064
37………… 19.996 0.021 19.886 0.028 19.430 0.025 19.095 0.023 18.682 0.022 2.322
38………… 21.435 0.063 21.244 0.069 19.690 0.022 18.852 0.014 18.107 0.009 1.806
40………… 19.872 0.033 19.815 0.036 19.027 0.025 18.674 0.023 18.244 0.019 3.096
41………… 19.058 0.010 19.095 0.012 18.810 0.012 18.668 0.014 18.462 0.017 3.096
42………… 18.324 0.030 18.689 0.027 18.557 0.026 18.408 0.033 18.175 0.031 3.612
44………… 20.989 0.044 20.823 0.046 20.180 0.038 19.789 0.034 19.408 0.037 1.290
45………… 21.442 0.055 21.055 0.046 20.170 0.032 19.610 0.024 19.120 0.023 1.290
46………… 23.105 0.190 23.243 0.222 22.556 0.163 21.946 0.118 22.152 0.159 1.032
47………… 17.549 0.014 18.519 0.020 18.303 0.020 18.216 0.021 18.482 0.029 2.580
48………… 17.628 0.008 18.875 0.020 18.491 0.017 18.057 0.016 18.297 0.024 3.354
49………… 19.362 0.021 19.129 0.020 18.323 0.013 17.752 0.010 17.258 0.008 3.096
51………… 20.151 0.018 20.989 0.029 20.869 0.034 20.950 0.044 21.035 0.055 1.032
52………… 20.467 0.041 20.479 0.044 19.778 0.035 19.410 0.031 19.018 0.029 2.322
53………… 18.609 0.007 18.657 0.009 18.285 0.010 18.055 0.010 17.645 0.010 3.096
54………… 20.327 0.031 20.227 0.033 19.683 0.026 19.208 0.025 18.812 0.023 2.064
55………… 20.618 0.047 20.371 0.036 19.752 0.036 19.277 0.032 18.607 0.023 3.096
56………… 19.868 0.027 20.900 0.046 20.933 0.054 21.051 0.066 21.475 0.130 1.032
58………… 19.668 0.021 19.806 0.024 19.354 0.024 19.078 0.024 18.625 0.022 3.096
59………… 16.966 0.004 17.394 0.005 17.089 0.006 16.879 0.006 16.492 0.007 3.096
61………… 20.024 0.030 19.868 0.034 19.274 0.030 18.946 0.030 18.346 0.027 2.838
63………… 20.059 0.025 20.092 0.029 19.569 0.030 19.245 0.031 18.945 0.031 2.064
65………… 19.846 0.024 19.674 0.022 19.034 0.019 18.596 0.020 18.083 0.020 3.354
66………… 20.577 0.035 20.479 0.042 19.249 0.026 18.307 0.014 17.348 0.012 1.548
67………… 18.273 0.008 18.678 0.011 18.473 0.012 18.421 0.013 18.186 0.015 1.806
68………… 18.834 0.017 18.962 0.018 18.630 0.022 18.498 0.026 18.006 0.026 3.096
70………… 17.559 0.006 17.893 0.008 17.588 0.008 17.410 0.008 17.090 0.008 2.322
71………… 19.768 0.027 19.769 0.031 19.121 0.021 18.725 0.018 18.300 0.018 2.580
72………… 19.918 0.019 20.033 0.023 19.624 0.026 19.467 0.032 19.181 0.041 2.322
74………… 19.858 0.029 20.070 0.037 19.603 0.039 19.414 0.051 18.899 0.052 2.580
75………… 20.682 0.041 20.538 0.043 19.917 0.034 19.551 0.030 18.916 0.027 2.064
76………… 19.825 0.023 20.280 0.034 20.039 0.037 19.970 0.048 19.501 0.041 2.064
77………… 19.432 0.018 19.203 0.018 18.356 0.011 17.828 0.009 17.282 0.007 2.322
78………… 19.065 0.015 19.222 0.018 18.882 0.021 18.655 0.026 18.384 0.030 3.096
79………… 18.711 0.009 19.286 0.016 19.178 0.019 19.189 0.024 18.972 0.024 1.806
80………… 18.128 0.012 18.197 0.012 17.811 0.011 17.596 0.013 17.278 0.014 2.064
81………… 19.671 0.024 19.655 0.022 19.085 0.021 18.670 0.018 18.137 0.015 2.064
82………… 20.893 0.040 20.910 0.043 20.326 0.037 19.961 0.036 19.497 0.031 2.580
83………… 20.234 0.043 20.186 0.037 19.696 0.034 19.486 0.036 19.032 0.034 2.064
84………… 19.537 0.024 19.457 0.026 19.069 0.025 18.791 0.026 18.634 0.032 2.580
85………… 17.387 0.006 17.836 0.009 17.574 0.010 17.402 0.011 17.109 0.012 2.064
86………… 18.774 0.012 19.074 0.018 18.648 0.018 18.285 0.020 17.687 0.018 2.838
87………… 19.149 0.025 19.197 0.024 18.420 0.021 17.789 0.018 17.247 0.017 3.612
88………… 19.292 0.023 19.707 0.032 19.463 0.034 19.194 0.029 18.971 0.032 1.806
89………… 18.402 0.011 18.623 0.015 18.331 0.015 18.099 0.018 17.798 0.018 3.354
90………… 20.020 0.017 20.036 0.018 19.721 0.007 19.373 0.018 19.259 0.025 1.806
91………… 18.940 0.022 18.657 0.016 17.788 0.011 17.236 0.008 16.692 0.008 4.128
92………… 19.499 0.016 19.571 0.018 19.131 0.017 18.900 0.020 18.567 0.023 2.580
93………… 17.922 0.014 17.919 0.014 17.492 0.014 17.244 0.017 16.784 0.016 3.612
94………… 17.922 0.010 18.052 0.011 17.711 0.011 17.500 0.012 17.198 0.013 2.580
95………… 18.092 0.011 18.042 0.010 17.286 0.008 16.846 0.008 16.379 0.007 3.096
96………… 19.942 0.037 19.718 0.029 19.122 0.028 18.793 0.032 18.216 0.027 3.096
97………… 20.458 0.055 20.012 0.040 19.146 0.025 18.669 0.020 18.157 0.016 3.096
Table 1New photometry of M33 star clusters and candidates.
Object
mag mag mag mag mag
98………… 18.044 0.009 18.387 0.012 18.120 0.012 17.975 0.015 17.689 0.016 2.580
100………… 21.212 0.038 21.242 0.041 20.846 0.046 20.640 0.062 20.343 0.067 1.806
101………… 19.138 0.023 18.832 0.021 18.010 0.013 17.518 0.011 16.917 0.009 3.612
102………… 18.988 0.026 18.741 0.022 18.036 0.014 17.644 0.012 17.206 0.010 3.870
103………… 19.216 0.016 19.034 0.015 18.478 0.014 18.142 0.017 17.722 0.015 3.870
104………… 18.492 0.011 18.711 0.014 18.376 0.016 18.111 0.018 17.681 0.021 2.838
105………… 17.983 0.010 18.380 0.015 18.040 0.016 17.752 0.016 17.125 0.014 2.580
106………… 19.034 0.017 18.988 0.020 18.650 0.021 18.387 0.024 18.135 0.027 2.580
107………… 17.323 0.007 18.761 0.018 18.070 0.013 17.388 0.010 18.049 0.023 3.096
108………… 19.614 0.019 19.380 0.018 18.722 0.015 18.224 0.014 17.743 0.013 3.354
109………… 19.799 0.025 19.766 0.025 19.372 0.029 19.083 0.030 18.775 0.033 3.354
110………… 18.750 0.015 18.581 0.015 17.979 0.013 17.619 0.015 17.241 0.017 3.354
111………… 20.304 0.024 20.313 0.025 19.843 0.025 19.557 0.025 19.267 0.030 2.580
112………… 19.340 0.018 19.253 0.017 18.842 0.020 18.525 0.021 17.993 0.019 3.096
113………… 17.160 0.006 17.610 0.008 17.309 0.008 17.099 0.008 16.750 0.009 2.322
114………… 18.497 0.010 19.013 0.014 18.762 0.016 18.690 0.020 18.445 0.022 2.322
115………… 20.142 0.027 20.092 0.026 19.598 0.026 19.340 0.027 19.087 0.031 3.096
116………… 22.819 0.252 23.218 0.476 21.174 0.116 20.330 0.085 19.483 0.071 1.548
117………… 19.530 0.024 19.385 0.022 18.755 0.017 18.437 0.020 18.014 0.025 2.322
118………… 20.512 0.036 20.632 0.042 20.077 0.039 19.662 0.038 19.075 0.029 1.290
119………… 17.407 0.007 18.447 0.016 18.232 0.017 17.774 0.015 18.029 0.028 2.580
120………… 20.888 0.070 21.103 0.084 20.262 0.050 19.754 0.045 18.969 0.030 1.806
121………… 19.359 0.019 19.160 0.018 18.551 0.018 18.132 0.016 17.645 0.015 4.128
122………… 19.095 0.016 18.980 0.016 18.462 0.015 18.151 0.016 17.678 0.015 3.354
123………… 19.289 0.033 19.494 0.036 19.244 0.039 19.197 0.053 18.868 0.062 2.580
124………… 19.459 0.019 19.305 0.020 18.812 0.022 18.512 0.023 18.079 0.027 1.806
125………… 19.053 0.015 19.262 0.018 18.959 0.020 18.745 0.024 18.199 0.024 2.322
126………… 18.674 0.028 19.036 0.022 18.637 0.019 18.300 0.026 17.931 0.023 2.580
127………… 19.549 0.022 19.791 0.029 19.172 0.025 18.821 0.026 18.196 0.023 3.096
128………… 19.325 0.068 20.270 0.067 19.814 0.069 19.152 0.070 19.436 0.062 0.774
129………… 20.925 0.040 20.863 0.039 20.094 0.030 19.502 0.023 18.756 0.017 2.580
130………… 19.988 0.029 19.447 0.019 18.373 0.013 17.692 0.010 17.099 0.009 2.838
131………… 19.579 0.026 19.616 0.031 19.125 0.029 18.728 0.027 18.389 0.041 2.322
132………… 16.998 0.007 17.640 0.009 17.511 0.008 17.550 0.011 17.520 0.013 1.548
134………… 18.184 0.010 18.429 0.012 18.067 0.012 17.831 0.013 17.475 0.014 2.064
136………… 19.054 0.021 19.051 0.020 18.560 0.016 18.188 0.014 17.690 0.011 2.580
137………… 18.715 0.013 19.593 0.016 19.440 0.018 19.367 0.027 19.351 0.033 1.548
138………… 18.904 0.013 19.168 0.016 18.651 0.015 18.293 0.015 17.903 0.014 2.838
139………… 18.743 0.015 19.202 0.020 18.848 0.023 18.634 0.023 18.206 0.023 1.806
140………… 17.118 0.005 17.416 0.006 17.122 0.006 16.936 0.007 16.679 0.008 2.064
141………… 17.788 0.007 18.107 0.009 17.729 0.008 17.484 0.008 17.074 0.008 2.580
142………… 20.312 0.057 20.373 0.035 19.495 0.026 18.878 0.025 18.336 0.021 2.580
143………… 18.405 0.014 18.328 0.013 17.496 0.009 16.971 0.009 16.395 0.009 2.838
144………… 17.449 0.005 17.852 0.008 17.573 0.008 17.448 0.009 17.160 0.012 2.322
145………… 19.261 0.018 19.166 0.018 18.548 0.015 18.242 0.015 17.915 0.018 2.322
146………… 18.760 0.015 19.100 0.017 18.733 0.020 18.461 0.026 18.028 0.029 3.096
147………… 19.231 0.016 19.231 0.017 18.556 0.015 17.991 0.014 17.313 0.012 3.096
148………… 20.048 0.026 19.934 0.026 19.344 0.025 18.885 0.023 18.202 0.020 2.838
149………… 19.696 0.019 19.679 0.021 19.037 0.017 18.574 0.017 18.095 0.016 3.096
150………… 19.582 0.023 19.893 0.032 19.403 0.036 18.976 0.032 18.718 0.042 4.386
151………… 19.153 0.012 19.101 0.014 18.719 0.015 18.558 0.018 18.301 0.021 2.322
152………… 16.122 0.004 16.652 0.005 16.462 0.005 16.387 0.006 16.186 0.006 3.354
153………… 20.419 0.078 20.537 0.067 20.047 0.051 19.653 0.044 18.814 0.032 1.290
154………… 15.738 0.004 16.316 0.004 15.993 0.004 15.714 0.004 15.209 0.004 2.322
155………… 20.530 0.072 20.421 0.060 20.033 0.051 19.718 0.043 19.386 0.042 1.806
156………… 16.743 0.004 17.268 0.005 17.036 0.006 16.922 0.007 16.649 0.008 3.096
157………… 19.256 0.016 19.688 0.024 19.458 0.028 19.473 0.045 19.266 0.059 2.838
158………… 20.524 0.037 20.503 0.043 19.824 0.030 19.381 0.025 18.817 0.019 2.064
159………… 19.762 0.028 19.855 0.034 19.244 0.027 18.852 0.027 18.393 0.022 2.322
161………… 18.969 0.016 19.144 0.019 18.757 0.018 18.484 0.019 17.985 0.020 2.322
162………… 18.892 0.017 19.445 0.029 19.216 0.033 18.820 0.034 18.186 0.028 3.096
163………… 19.314 0.022 19.889 0.033 19.891 0.043 19.900 0.058 20.002 0.083 2.064
165………… 19.411 0.025 19.411 0.023 19.028 0.027 18.702 0.028 18.354 0.030 3.354
166………… 21.438 0.078 20.996 0.051 19.970 0.036 19.237 0.026 18.399 0.018 2.580
167………… 20.087 0.028 20.029 0.034 19.624 0.033 19.531 0.042 19.136 0.044 2.322
168………… 18.220 0.014 18.666 0.018 18.224 0.021 17.875 0.022 17.461 0.024 2.580
169………… 16.659 0.004 17.383 0.008 17.306 0.011 17.376 0.016 17.293 0.023 3.096
171………… 17.938 0.011 18.784 0.023 18.459 0.030 17.892 0.024 17.849 0.033 2.322
172………… 17.035 0.005 17.520 0.007 17.347 0.008 17.256 0.009 17.107 0.010 2.322
173………… 18.955 0.011 19.192 0.017 18.871 0.016 18.711 0.018 18.483 0.018 2.064
174………… 18.338 0.010 18.633 0.014 18.283 0.014 18.104 0.013 17.717 0.015 2.580
175………… 18.100 0.006 19.189 0.014 19.154 0.020 18.661 0.019 18.903 0.035 2.322
176………… 17.501 0.007 17.762 0.008 17.487 0.009 17.403 0.013 17.183 0.018 2.064
178………… 17.210 0.005 17.081 0.005 16.298 0.004 15.823 0.004 15.311 0.003 3.354
179………… 19.933 0.022 20.018 0.028 19.764 0.033 19.612 0.041 19.323 0.051 1.806
180………… 19.752 0.027 19.701 0.028 19.060 0.022 18.674 0.020 17.932 0.014 2.580
181………… 18.959 0.016 18.979 0.017 18.573 0.016 18.330 0.016 17.978 0.015 2.580
182………… 19.858 0.025 19.707 0.023 19.022 0.021 18.488 0.017 17.990 0.015 2.838
183………… 19.325 0.016 19.519 0.021 19.188 0.027 19.006 0.038 18.633 0.041 2.838
184………… 19.508 0.025 19.618 0.028 18.759 0.017 18.275 0.016 17.677 0.012 2.580
Table 1Continued.
Object
mag mag mag mag mag
185………… 20.203 0.019 20.930 0.036 20.704 0.044 20.583 0.053 20.406 0.079 1.806
186………… 19.478 0.020 19.336 0.020 18.625 0.018 18.236 0.018 17.741 0.015 2.580
187………… 20.636 0.028 20.687 0.031 20.261 0.032 19.966 0.039 19.332 0.035 1.548
188………… 18.677 0.018 18.552 0.017 17.665 0.011 17.135 0.008 16.643 0.007 3.870
189………… 20.587 0.039 20.582 0.040 19.922 0.035 19.511 0.036 19.024 0.036 2.322
190………… 18.197 0.008 18.424 0.011 18.132 0.011 17.965 0.013 17.650 0.016 2.580
191………… 18.917 0.014 18.800 0.014 18.316 0.015 18.037 0.015 17.654 0.015 2.322
192………… 19.841 0.044 19.831 0.036 19.131 0.032 18.765 0.034 18.139 0.033 2.838
193………… 21.321 0.086 21.656 0.106 20.775 0.065 20.271 0.067 19.780 0.071 2.064
194………… 17.295 0.005 17.676 0.007 17.488 0.008 17.374 0.008 17.169 0.010 3.870
195………… 22.958 0.584 21.987 0.252 20.732 0.108 19.842 0.064 18.925 0.046 1.806
196………… 21.590 0.067 21.499 0.066 20.874 0.059 20.530 0.062 20.242 0.066 1.806
197………… 15.544 0.002 16.405 0.004 16.384 0.005 16.515 0.008 16.604 0.014 2.064
198………… 16.373 0.008 17.087 0.010 16.779 0.009 16.383 0.008 15.654 0.006 2.064
199………… 18.074 0.014 18.320 0.017 17.891 0.018 17.730 0.020 17.543 0.027 3.354
200………… 19.826 0.055 19.836 0.048 19.204 0.037 18.686 0.041 18.217 0.045 3.096
201………… 18.755 0.015 18.877 0.017 18.494 0.019 18.302 0.022 17.913 0.026 2.322
202………… 19.292 0.017 19.144 0.017 18.662 0.017 18.388 0.017 17.926 0.017 2.838
203………… 19.893 0.019 20.669 0.034 20.378 0.037 20.401 0.063 20.069 0.074 1.290
204………… 18.993 0.019 19.402 0.025 19.107 0.029 19.015 0.038 18.903 0.056 2.580
205………… 17.805 0.009 18.976 0.014 18.838 0.018 18.433 0.022 19.014 0.043 2.322
206………… 18.297 0.010 18.126 0.009 17.290 0.007 16.773 0.006 16.277 0.006 3.354
207………… 19.445 0.018 19.664 0.022 19.307 0.023 19.081 0.029 18.776 0.038 1.806
208………… 19.711 0.025 19.482 0.022 18.882 0.024 18.538 0.026 18.019 0.024 2.838
209………… 19.622 0.026 19.699 0.029 19.203 0.030 18.844 0.030 18.568 0.033 2.838
210………… 20.357 0.025 20.633 0.032 20.288 0.034 20.051 0.036 19.682 0.039 1.548
211………… 19.328 0.014 19.563 0.021 19.144 0.021 18.906 0.023 18.674 0.030 2.580
212………… 19.574 0.026 19.776 0.030 19.267 0.030 18.756 0.029 18.221 0.025 2.580
213………… 19.655 0.013 20.671 0.032 20.619 0.029 20.721 0.036 20.901 0.037 0.774
214………… 17.556 0.006 17.889 0.008 17.549 0.008 17.337 0.009 16.997 0.009 3.096
215………… 16.544 0.009 17.464 0.010 17.259 0.009 17.089 0.013 17.268 0.011 1.548
216………… ……. 19.095 0.018 18.577 0.018 18.236 0.018 15.343 0.002 3.612
217………… 19.103 0.023 19.364 0.032 18.886 0.041 18.612 0.060 18.305 0.065 3.354
218………… 19.411 0.023 19.608 0.031 19.235 0.040 19.090 0.058 18.062 0.039 2.064
219………… 18.357 0.019 18.403 0.018 17.988 0.018 17.686 0.015 17.341 0.018 2.580
220………… 17.934 0.015 18.163 0.014 17.886 0.014 17.756 0.014 17.578 0.018 2.580
221………… 18.871 0.030 18.941 0.024 18.589 0.026 18.442 0.031 18.254 0.040 2.580
222………… 16.776 0.005 16.981 0.006 16.623 0.006 16.415 0.006 16.070 0.006 3.354
223………… 18.510 0.014 19.563 0.031 19.405 0.040 18.829 0.032 19.061 0.061 1.548
224………… 18.578 0.020 19.196 0.032 18.984 0.042 18.359 0.035 18.205 0.043 3.096
227………… 19.209 0.012 19.387 0.015 19.061 0.016 18.937 0.017 18.740 0.019 2.064
228………… 17.928 0.011 18.473 0.016 18.173 0.017 17.898 0.019 17.336 0.018 2.064
229………… 19.210 0.030 19.419 0.032 19.053 0.034 18.977 0.047 18.606 0.051 2.838
231………… 19.427 0.015 19.490 0.020 18.971 0.019 18.670 0.021 18.237 0.024 1.548
232………… 19.908 0.037 19.756 0.034 19.153 0.035 18.636 0.039 18.011 0.038 2.838
233………… 18.963 0.016 19.152 0.021 18.579 0.019 18.187 0.020 17.647 0.016 3.096
234………… 19.550 0.026 19.532 0.029 18.666 0.022 18.209 0.019 17.612 0.017 3.096
235………… 19.958 0.035 19.738 0.028 19.079 0.022 18.566 0.022 17.970 0.018 2.838
236………… 19.667 0.037 19.696 0.038 19.245 0.039 18.962 0.042 18.699 0.059 2.580
237………… 18.440 0.012 18.583 0.014 18.223 0.019 17.908 0.026 17.584 0.036 2.064
238………… 19.724 0.016 19.634 0.017 19.097 0.017 18.793 0.021 18.350 0.023 1.806
239………… 18.122 0.008 18.208 0.011 17.904 0.012 17.773 0.015 17.585 0.018 3.354
240………… 19.751 0.019 19.794 0.022 19.356 0.023 18.959 0.022 18.337 0.019 1.806
241………… 18.916 0.037 18.945 0.029 18.133 0.020 17.699 0.021 17.172 0.019 2.838
242………… 18.059 0.009 19.351 0.020 19.185 0.023 18.429 0.019 19.082 0.052 2.322
243………… 16.525 0.004 17.202 0.006 17.078 0.006 16.971 0.007 16.718 0.008 2.580
244………… 19.380 0.013 19.566 0.018 19.195 0.019 18.915 0.018 18.469 0.016 3.096
245………… 17.237 0.007 17.497 0.009 17.173 0.009 16.945 0.010 16.640 0.011 3.096
246………… 16.925 0.006 17.607 0.010 17.459 0.013 17.392 0.019 17.267 0.030 3.096
247………… 17.698 0.007 18.275 0.010 18.121 0.016 18.037 0.022 17.723 0.026 2.322
248………… 18.429 0.019 18.617 0.020 18.223 0.027 18.034 0.041 17.428 0.039 3.096
249………… 17.968 0.014 18.976 0.018 18.887 0.021 18.375 0.023 18.613 0.038 2.064
250………… 19.204 0.038 19.580 0.036 19.349 0.038 19.368 0.051 19.556 0.094 1.548
251………… 17.537 0.007 18.516 0.013 18.273 0.014 17.704 0.012 17.839 0.019 2.580
252………… 19.250 0.018 19.257 0.026 18.744 0.023 18.437 0.024 18.055 0.025 2.322
253………… 20.722 0.045 21.110 0.066 20.795 0.071 20.679 0.088 20.350 0.109 1.806
254………… 20.290 0.026 20.447 0.032 19.981 0.028 19.557 0.025 19.143 0.029 1.806
255………… 16.311 0.005 16.863 0.007 16.709 0.008 16.618 0.010 16.299 0.011 3.612
256………… 20.408 0.026 20.660 0.035 20.178 0.033 20.017 0.040 19.718 0.042 1.806
257………… 16.763 0.003 17.551 0.007 17.362 0.007 17.338 0.010 17.379 0.016 2.580
258………… 19.355 0.070 19.807 0.087 19.081 0.073 18.564 0.066 17.961 0.064 2.580
259………… 17.118 0.006 18.337 0.014 17.962 0.016 17.328 0.012 17.900 0.028 4.128
260………… 15.451 0.003 16.230 0.004 16.109 0.004 15.920 0.004 15.471 0.004 3.096
261………… 16.553 0.004 16.612 0.004 15.953 0.003 15.650 0.003 15.356 0.003 2.580
262………… 19.569 0.024 19.587 0.025 19.179 0.025 18.818 0.025 18.474 0.027 2.322
263………… 19.098 0.017 19.094 0.019 18.576 0.017 18.235 0.016 17.825 0.016 3.354
264………… 19.214 0.027 19.131 0.023 18.534 0.021 18.040 0.020 17.505 0.022 2.580
265………… 18.925 0.022 19.072 0.024 18.619 0.025 18.228 0.025 17.720 0.024 3.096
266………… 20.705 0.056 20.629 0.052 19.959 0.042 19.681 0.049 19.240 0.049 2.322
267………… 18.397 0.018 18.638 0.021 18.241 0.022 18.136 0.037 17.823 0.047 2.580
Table 1Continued.
Object
mag mag mag mag mag
269………… 17.807 0.007 18.087 0.010 17.756 0.011 17.595 0.016 17.353 0.021 3.096
270………… 18.347 0.014 18.412 0.014 17.930 0.013 17.635 0.014 17.276 0.014 3.354
271………… 18.976 0.018 19.031 0.021 18.528 0.020 18.159 0.020 17.686 0.020 3.354
272………… 18.574 0.025 18.819 0.027 18.512 0.030 18.417 0.041 18.083 0.053 3.354
273………… 17.346 0.007 17.198 0.006 16.399 0.005 15.922 0.005 15.414 0.006 3.354
274………… 18.202 0.009 19.119 0.018 18.956 0.020 18.525 0.019 18.377 0.024 2.838
275………… 17.815 0.008 17.521 0.008 16.545 0.006 15.930 0.005 15.313 0.005 3.354
276………… 17.566 0.019 18.355 0.016 18.186 0.017 18.110 0.030 18.125 0.025 1.548
279………… 20.562 0.048 19.825 0.027 18.011 0.009 16.889 0.005 15.809 0.003 2.580
280………… 17.863 0.009 18.034 0.010 17.623 0.010 17.369 0.012 16.975 0.014 2.838
281………… 17.163 0.005 17.126 0.005 16.391 0.004 15.936 0.004 15.476 0.004 3.096
282………… 18.759 0.018 18.962 0.021 18.454 0.023 17.997 0.025 17.445 0.027 3.870
283………… 18.992 0.016 19.030 0.016 18.393 0.015 17.960 0.016 17.422 0.016 2.838
284………… 17.037 0.005 17.171 0.006 16.819 0.006 16.655 0.006 16.392 0.006 3.612
285………… 19.554 0.040 19.786 0.045 19.472 0.050 19.375 0.068 18.515 0.048 2.580
286………… 18.559 0.017 18.675 0.019 18.240 0.020 17.859 0.021 17.294 0.019 3.870
287………… 18.787 0.014 19.538 0.027 19.319 0.029 19.312 0.041 19.047 0.057 2.580
288………… 18.949 0.012 18.896 0.012 18.443 0.012 18.170 0.013 17.749 0.014 3.096
289………… 17.954 0.009 18.039 0.011 17.556 0.012 17.248 0.012 16.791 0.012 3.612
290………… 17.579 0.008 18.305 0.014 18.088 0.016 17.897 0.020 17.500 0.021 2.322
291………… 17.591 0.010 18.053 0.012 17.755 0.014 17.463 0.015 16.911 0.014 3.612
292………… 18.654 0.013 19.059 0.017 18.745 0.018 18.423 0.017 17.979 0.016 2.580
294………… 20.679 0.073 20.658 0.067 19.685 0.040 19.041 0.029 18.448 0.027 2.580
295………… 17.918 0.011 18.158 0.013 17.794 0.016 17.522 0.018 17.064 0.021 3.612
296………… 19.458 0.024 19.485 0.033 18.797 0.022 18.372 0.019 17.773 0.015 4.128
298………… 17.582 0.006 17.952 0.008 17.728 0.008 17.646 0.009 17.412 0.009 2.580
299………… 17.503 0.008 18.009 0.011 17.879 0.014 17.752 0.018 17.513 0.021 2.322
300………… 18.696 0.024 18.738 0.023 17.960 0.017 17.532 0.019 17.090 0.022 3.096
301………… 18.934 0.032 18.797 0.030 18.238 0.029 17.678 0.024 17.025 0.019 3.354
302………… 18.823 0.011 19.281 0.019 19.021 0.022 18.881 0.027 18.712 0.039 2.322
303………… 16.506 0.005 17.563 0.009 17.224 0.011 16.807 0.011 17.161 0.020 4.902
304………… 18.884 0.017 19.121 0.021 18.796 0.022 18.638 0.027 18.327 0.034 3.096
305………… 16.199 0.016 17.079 0.014 17.049 0.017 17.149 0.029 17.129 0.015 1.548
306………… 18.946 0.013 18.845 0.013 18.317 0.014 17.959 0.014 17.502 0.014 3.612
307………… 19.410 0.021 19.467 0.025 19.161 0.030 19.146 0.040 18.737 0.042 2.838
308………… 17.669 0.007 18.068 0.009 17.829 0.010 17.688 0.012 17.292 0.012 3.612
310………… 19.074 0.021 19.304 0.023 18.790 0.027 18.367 0.029 17.887 0.034 2.580
311………… 20.539 0.084 20.472 0.073 19.617 0.050 19.150 0.045 18.660 0.036 2.580
312………… 18.566 0.013 18.957 0.020 18.811 0.026 18.599 0.029 18.278 0.035 3.096
313………… 17.007 0.007 17.215 0.007 16.880 0.008 16.687 0.009 16.416 0.010 3.612
316………… 17.512 0.007 17.286 0.006 16.376 0.004 15.839 0.004 15.282 0.004 3.354
317………… 19.454 0.017 19.486 0.020 19.026 0.022 18.649 0.025 18.013 0.019 3.096
320………… 15.853 0.002 16.482 0.004 16.342 0.004 16.270 0.005 16.022 0.006 2.580
321………… 17.585 0.010 17.803 0.011 17.373 0.012 17.125 0.016 16.816 0.020 3.096
322………… 19.355 0.022 19.232 0.021 18.813 0.027 18.523 0.033 18.252 0.050 3.354
323………… 19.271 0.027 19.323 0.030 18.972 0.037 18.711 0.041 18.219 0.045 3.354
325………… 17.581 0.007 18.039 0.009 17.825 0.010 17.632 0.012 17.308 0.014 2.838
326………… 19.969 0.050 19.085 0.021 18.183 0.010 17.321 0.008 16.723 0.006 1.548
327………… 18.766 0.010 18.890 0.010 18.618 0.010 18.451 0.011 18.116 0.011 2.838
328………… 19.210 0.018 19.556 0.026 19.374 0.029 19.137 0.030 18.829 0.029 2.580
329………… 17.807 0.010 17.896 0.012 17.476 0.012 17.336 0.016 16.943 0.016 4.386
330………… 21.240 0.040 21.360 0.054 20.903 0.049 20.665 0.053 20.610 0.068 1.548
331………… 15.892 0.003 16.289 0.004 16.094 0.004 16.013 0.004 15.835 0.005 2.580
332………… 19.139 0.019 18.926 0.016 18.310 0.015 17.868 0.015 17.496 0.016 3.354
333………… 18.339 0.012 18.259 0.013 17.730 0.013 17.377 0.014 16.896 0.016 3.354
334………… 19.475 0.012 20.316 0.021 20.311 0.026 20.482 0.035 20.486 0.046 1.806
335………… 18.379 0.015 18.369 0.015 17.880 0.015 17.640 0.018 17.295 0.021 4.128
336………… 18.379 0.015 18.369 0.015 17.880 0.015 17.640 0.018 17.295 0.021 4.128
337………… 16.522 0.003 16.807 0.004 16.470 0.005 16.265 0.005 15.923 0.005 3.354
338………… 19.987 0.019 20.087 0.024 19.689 0.022 19.453 0.025 19.295 0.039 1.290
339………… 19.855 0.020 20.124 0.024 19.972 0.030 19.843 0.036 19.846 0.053 3.096
341………… 17.095 0.005 18.212 0.009 17.935 0.009 17.374 0.008 17.786 0.014 2.838
342………… 18.954 0.013 19.327 0.018 19.058 0.021 19.088 0.031 19.181 0.054 2.580
343………… 18.312 0.018 18.795 0.018 18.372 0.018 18.131 0.026 17.948 0.032 3.354
344………… 18.094 0.012 18.373 0.015 17.919 0.014 17.523 0.014 16.978 0.013 3.354
345………… 18.767 0.008 18.754 0.009 18.385 0.009 18.126 0.009 17.555 0.008 3.354
346………… 18.443 0.011 18.870 0.014 18.135 0.011 17.386 0.008 16.427 0.005 3.870
347………… 18.829 0.015 18.795 0.016 18.367 0.016 18.169 0.019 17.751 0.021 2.838
348………… 19.453 0.024 19.393 0.024 18.668 0.020 18.175 0.019 17.649 0.018 3.354
349………… 18.998 0.018 18.956 0.017 18.480 0.017 18.121 0.019 17.817 0.028 3.096
350………… 18.546 0.013 18.477 0.015 17.911 0.015 17.666 0.016 17.245 0.018 3.354
351………… 18.653 0.010 18.589 0.010 18.153 0.011 17.912 0.010 17.582 0.012 3.096
352………… 18.779 0.012 19.325 0.020 19.017 0.022 18.910 0.031 18.519 0.033 2.838
353………… 17.638 0.007 17.835 0.009 17.431 0.010 17.227 0.012 16.921 0.014 4.128
354………… 19.053 0.016 19.186 0.022 18.731 0.021 18.588 0.026 18.293 0.031 3.612
355………… 18.020 0.011 18.224 0.013 17.785 0.013 17.447 0.014 16.933 0.012 3.612
357………… 18.624 0.017 18.838 0.020 18.351 0.017 17.979 0.016 17.475 0.015 3.096
358………… 18.840 0.014 18.758 0.015 18.208 0.015 17.919 0.016 17.538 0.017 3.096
359………… 17.678 0.015 18.024 0.014 17.637 0.012 17.433 0.012 17.115 0.011 2.838
360………… 19.858 0.029 19.676 0.025 19.191 0.026 18.880 0.030 18.516 0.037 2.838
Table 1Continued.
Object
mag mag mag mag mag
361………… 20.099 0.024 20.235 0.033 19.857 0.036 19.474 0.038 18.787 0.032 2.580
364………… 20.018 0.036 19.688 0.028 19.195 0.027 18.808 0.026 18.383 0.026 3.612
365………… 19.285 0.020 19.486 0.023 19.267 0.027 19.147 0.035 19.080 0.046 2.580
366………… 19.022 0.013 20.023 0.026 20.022 0.035 19.758 0.036 19.926 0.055 2.580
367………… 21.749 0.119 21.044 0.066 19.459 0.021 18.620 0.015 17.869 0.012 1.548
368………… 16.646 0.003 17.000 0.005 16.685 0.005 16.481 0.005 16.201 0.005 3.096
370………… 16.690 0.004 17.042 0.005 16.738 0.005 16.559 0.005 16.269 0.005 3.096
371………… 17.037 0.004 17.387 0.006 17.123 0.006 16.978 0.007 16.765 0.007 3.096
372………… 18.839 0.012 18.832 0.013 18.407 0.016 18.183 0.018 17.865 0.017 2.838
373………… 19.026 0.017 19.097 0.020 18.649 0.022 18.331 0.025 17.834 0.017 3.096
375………… 20.193 0.034 20.161 0.034 19.518 0.035 19.151 0.035 18.591 0.037 2.580
376………… 18.803 0.013 19.019 0.016 18.594 0.018 18.395 0.021 18.126 0.029 2.580
377………… 18.783 0.015 19.026 0.019 18.626 0.019 18.553 0.025 18.249 0.030 2.580
378………… 19.168 0.015 19.530 0.019 19.154 0.023 18.894 0.030 18.812 0.036 2.580
379………… 19.318 0.015 19.361 0.016 18.932 0.017 18.663 0.020 18.323 0.022 3.354
380………… 19.923 0.014 20.829 0.031 20.730 0.037 20.816 0.044 20.915 0.071 1.290
382………… 19.351 0.018 19.496 0.022 19.065 0.024 18.738 0.028 18.389 0.030 3.096
383………… 19.956 0.026 20.004 0.030 19.553 0.030 19.088 0.027 18.519 0.024 2.580
384………… 18.197 0.007 18.226 0.008 17.842 0.007 17.630 0.007 17.346 0.007 3.096
385………… 19.261 0.018 19.014 0.017 18.199 0.013 17.668 0.009 17.119 0.008 3.354
386………… 19.927 0.025 19.985 0.031 19.523 0.031 19.188 0.033 18.855 0.031 3.096
387………… 18.324 0.010 18.181 0.010 17.507 0.008 17.095 0.008 16.660 0.008 3.354
388………… 18.438 0.011 18.581 0.013 18.188 0.014 17.895 0.015 17.342 0.013 3.096
389………… 18.182 0.009 18.554 0.011 18.181 0.011 17.819 0.011 17.382 0.010 3.096
390………… 19.442 0.020 19.678 0.026 19.319 0.029 19.049 0.028 18.520 0.031 2.838
391………… 19.465 0.022 19.526 0.026 19.012 0.023 18.633 0.022 18.275 0.023 3.096
392………… 18.136 0.010 18.181 0.010 17.697 0.010 17.423 0.009 17.084 0.009 3.096
393………… 20.119 0.030 20.130 0.035 19.653 0.032 19.565 0.038 19.197 0.039 2.838
394………… 19.152 0.024 19.190 0.026 18.790 0.028 18.588 0.034 18.491 0.041 3.870
395………… 15.911 0.003 16.211 0.004 15.938 0.003 15.778 0.003 15.540 0.003 2.838
396………… 19.049 0.013 19.210 0.015 18.900 0.017 18.748 0.021 18.469 0.023 2.580
398………… 20.464 0.027 20.978 0.041 20.774 0.046 20.735 0.051 20.729 0.066 1.548
399………… 19.051 0.016 19.428 0.021 18.999 0.022 18.618 0.021 18.251 0.022 3.096
400………… 19.095 0.014 18.963 0.015 18.382 0.014 18.084 0.013 17.659 0.012 3.096
401………… 19.206 0.016 18.938 0.016 18.266 0.013 17.818 0.013 17.198 0.010 3.354
402………… 17.848 0.007 17.880 0.008 17.127 0.007 16.618 0.005 16.108 0.005 3.870
403………… 19.262 0.015 19.709 0.021 19.391 0.022 19.121 0.021 18.752 0.019 2.322
405………… 19.554 0.023 20.009 0.029 19.904 0.034 19.964 0.048 19.875 0.066 2.580
406………… 20.434 0.027 20.669 0.034 20.261 0.036 19.850 0.036 19.425 0.034 1.806
407………… 20.294 0.036 20.223 0.038 19.860 0.039 19.622 0.044 19.284 0.046 2.838
408………… 19.465 0.020 19.422 0.025 18.863 0.021 18.518 0.022 17.853 0.018 3.354
409………… 19.803 0.026 19.679 0.025 19.030 0.023 18.489 0.020 17.848 0.018 3.354
410………… 18.106 0.009 18.473 0.011 18.291 0.013 18.116 0.014 17.861 0.015 3.096
411………… 19.738 0.026 19.629 0.024 18.983 0.020 18.637 0.021 18.317 0.025 3.354
412………… 20.160 0.029 20.226 0.031 19.604 0.031 19.095 0.027 18.610 0.025 2.838
413………… 18.364