A Question Answering Approach to Emotion Cause Extraction
Emotion cause extraction aims to identify the reasons behind a certain emotion expressed in text. It is a much more difficult task compared to emotion classification. Inspired by recent advances in using deep memory networks for question answering (QA), we propose a new approach which considers emotion cause identification as a reading comprehension task in QA. Inspired by convolutional neural networks, we propose a new mechanism to store relevant context in different memory slots to model context information. Our proposed approach can extract both word level sequence features and lexical features. Performance evaluation shows that our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on a recently released emotion cause dataset, outperforming a number of competitive baselines by at least 3.01% in F-measure.
[color=red]lq \definechangesauthor[color=orange]yl \emnlpfinalcopy
With the rapid growth of social network platforms, more and more people tend to share their experiences and emotions online. Emotion analysis of online text becomes a new challenge in Natural Language Processing (NLP). In recent years, studies in emotion analysis largely focus on emotion classification including detection of writers’ emotions Gao et al. (2013) as well as readers’ emotions Chang et al. (2015). There are also some information extraction tasks defined in emotion analysis Chen et al. (2016); Balahur et al. (2011), such as extracting the feeler of an emotion Das and Bandyopadhyay (2010). These methods assume that emotion expressions are already observed. Sometimes, \addedhowever, we care more about the stimuli, or the cause of an emotion. For instance, Samsung wants to know why people love or hate Note 7 rather than the distribution of different emotions.
Ex.1 Because I lost my phone yesterday, I feel sad now.
In an example shown above, “sad” is an emotion word, and the cause of “sad” is “I lost my phone”. The emotion cause extraction task aims to identify the reason behind an emotion expression. It is a more difficult task compared to emotion classification since it requires a deep understanding of the text that conveys an emotions.
Existing approaches to emotion cause extraction mostly rely on methods typically used in information extraction, such as rule based template matching, sequence labeling and classification based methods. Most of them use linguistic rules or lexicon features, but do not consider the semantic information and ignore the relation between the emotion word and emotion cause.
In this paper, we present a new method for emotion cause extraction. We consider emotion cause extraction as a question answering (QA) task. Given a text containing the description of an event which \added[id=lq]may or may not cause a certain emotion, we take \added[id=lq]an emotion word \added[id=lq]in context, such as “sad”, as a query. The question to the QA system is: “Does the described event cause the emotion of sadness?”. The \added[id=lq]expected answer \added[id=lq]is either “yes” or “no”. (see Figure 1). We build our QA system based on a deep memory network. The memory network has two inputs: a piece of text, \added[id=lq]referred to as a story in QA systems, and a query. The \added[id=lq]story is represented using a sequence of word embeddings.
[id=lq]A recurrent structure is implemented to mine the deep relation between a query and a text. It measure\added[id=lq]s the \added[id=lq]importance of each word in the text by \added[id=lq]an attention mechanism. Based on the \added[id=lq]learned attention result, the network maps the text into a low dimensional vector space. This vector is \added[id=lq]then used to generate an answer. Existing memory network based approaches to QA use weighted sum of attentions to jointly consider short text segments stored in memory. However, they do not explicitly model \added[id=lq]sequential information in the context. In this paper, we propose a new deep memory network architecture to model the context of each word simultaneously by multiple memory slots which capture sequential information using convolutional operations Kim (2014), and achieves the state-of-the-art performance compared to existing methods which use manual rules, common sense knowledge bases or other machine learning models.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives a review of related works on emotion analysis. Section 3 presents our proposed deep memory network based model for emotion cause extraction. Section 4 discusses evaluation results. Finally, Section 5 concludes the work and outlines the future directions.
2 Related Work
Identifying emotion categories in text is one of the key tasks in NLP Liu (2015). Going one step further, emotion cause extraction can reveal important information \addedabout what causes a certain emotion and why there is an emotion change. In this section, we introduce related work on emotion \addedanalysis including emotion cause extraction.
In emotion analysis, we first need to determine the taxonomy of emotions. Researchers have proposed a list of primary emotions Plutchik (1980); Ekman (1984); Turner (2000). In this study, we adopt Ekman’s emotion classification scheme Ekman (1984), which identifies six primary emotions, namely happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust and surprise, \deletedas known as the “Big6” scheme in the W3C Emotion Markup Language. This emotion classification scheme is agreed upon by most previous works in Chinese emotion analysis.
Existing work in emotion analysis mostly focuses on emotion classification Li et al. (2013); Zhou et al. (2016) and emotion information extraction Balahur et al. (2013). \newcitexu2012coarse used a coarse to fine method to classify emotions in Chinese blogs. \newcitegao2013joint proposed a joint model to co-train a polarity classifier and an emotion classifier. \newcitebeck2014joint proposed a Multi-task Gaussian-process based method for emotion classification. \newcitechang2015linguistic used linguistic templates to predict reader’s emotions. \newcitedas2010finding used an unsupervised method to extract emotion feelers from Bengali blogs. There are other studies which focused on joint learning of sentiments Luo et al. (2015); Mohtarami et al. (2013) or emotions in tweets or blogs Quan and Ren (2009); Liu et al. (2013); Hasegawa et al. (2013); Qadir and Riloff (2014); Ou et al. (2014), and emotion lexicon construction Mohammad and Turney (2013); Yang et al. (2014); Staiano and Guerini (2014). However, the aforementioned work all focused on \addedanalysis of emotion expressions rather than \addedemotion causes.
lee2010text first proposed a task on emotion cause extraction. They \addedmanually constructed a corpus from the Academia Sinica Balanced Chinese Corpus. Based on this corpus, \newcitechen2010emotion proposed a rule based method to detect emotion causes based on manually define linguistic rules. Some studies Gui et al. (2014); Li and Xu (2014); Gao et al. (2015) extended the rule based method to informal text in Weibo text (Chinese tweets).
Other than rule based methods, \newciterusso2011emocause proposed a crowdsourcing method to construct a common-sense knowledge base which is related to emotion causes. But it is challenging to extend the common-sense knowledge base automatically. \newciteghazi2015detecting used Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to extract emotion causes. However, it requires emotion cause and emotion keywords to be in the same sentence. More recently, \newcitegui2016event proposed a multi-kernel based method to extract emotion causes through learning from a manually annotated emotion cause dataset.
[id=lq]Most existing work does not consider the relation between an emotion word and the cause of such an emotion, or they simply use the emotion word as a feature in their model learning. Since emotion cause extraction requires an understanding of a given piece of text in order to correctly identify the relation between the description of an event which causes an emotion and the expression of that emotion, it can essentially be considered as a QA task. In our work, we choose the memory network, which is designed to model the relation between a story and a query for QA systems Weston et al. (2014); Sukhbaatar et al. (2015). Apart from its application in QA, memory network has also achieved great successes in other NLP tasks, such as machine translation Luong et al. (2015), sentiment analysis Tang et al. (2016) or summarization M. Rush et al. (2015). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work which uses memory network for emotion cause extraction.
3 Our Approach
In this section, we will first define our task. \added[id=lq]Then, a brief introduction of memory network will be given, including its basic learning structure of memory network and deep architecture. Last, our modified deep memory network for emotion cause extraction will be presented.
3.1 Task Definition
The formal definition of emotion cause extraction is given in Gui et al. (2016). In this task, a given document, which \added[id=lq]is a passage about an emotion event, contains an emotion word and the cause of the event. The document is manually segmented in the clause level. For each clause consisting of words, the goal \added[id=lq]is to identify which clause contains the emotion cause. \added[id=lq]For data representation, we can map each word into a low dimensional embedding space, a.k.a word vector Mikolov et al. (2013). All the word vectors are stacked in a word embedding matrix , where is the dimension of word vector and is the vocabulary size.
For example, the sentence, “I lost my phone yesterday, I feel so sad now.” shown in Figure 1, consists of two clauses. The first clause contains the emotion cause while the second clause \added[id=lq]expresses the emotion of sadness. \added[id=lq]Current methods to emotion cause extraction cannot handle complex sentence structures where the expression of an emotion and its cause are not adjacent. We envision that the memory network can \added[id=lq]better model the relation between \added[id=lq]a emotion word and \added[id=lq]its emotion causes in such complex sentence structures. In our approach, we only select the clause with the highest probability to be \replaced[id=lq] thean emotion cause in each document.
3.2 Memory Network
We first present a basic memory network model for emotion cause extraction (shown in Figure 2). Given a clause , and an emotion word, we \added[id=lq]first obtain the emotion word’s representation in an embedding space\added[id=lq], denoted by . For the clause, \added[id=lq]let the embedding representations of the words be denoted by . Here, both and \added[id=lq]are defined in . Then, we use the inner product to evaluate the correlation between each word \added[id=lq] in a clause and the emotion word, denoted as :
We then normalize the value of to using a softmax function, denoted by \added[id=lq]as:
where is the length of the clause. \added[id=lq] also serves as the size of the memory. \addedObviously, and . \added[id=lq] can serve as an attention weight to measure the importance of each word in our model.
Then, a sum over the word embedding , weighted by the attention vector form the output of the memory network for the prediction of :
The final prediction is an output from a softmax function, denoted as :
Usually, is a weight matrix and is the transposition. Since the answer in our task is a simple “yes” or “no”, we use a matrix for . As the distance between a clause and an emotion words is a very important feature according to Gui et al. (2016), we simply add this distance into the softmax function as an additional feature in our work.
The basic model can be extended to deep architecture consisting of multiple layers to handle hop operations. The network is stacked as \added[id=lq]follows:
For hop 1, the query is and the prediction vector is ;
For hop , the query is the prediction vector of the previous hop and the prediction vector is ;
The output vector is at the top of the network. It is a softmax function on the prediction vector from hop : .
The illustration of a deep memory network with three layers is shown in Figure 3. Since \added[id=lq]a memory network models the emotion cause at a fine-grained level, each word has a corresponding weight to measure its importance in this task. Comparing \added[id=lq]to previous approaches \added[id=lq]in emotion cause extraction which are \added[id=lq]mostly based \added[id=lq]on manually defined rules or linguistic features, \added[id=lq]a memory network is a more principled way to identify the emotion cause from text. However, the basic \added[id=lq]memory network model \added[id=lq]does not capture the sequential information in context which is important in emotion cause extraction.
3.3 Convolutional Multiple-Slot Deep Memory Network
It is often the case that the meaning of a word is determined by its context, such as the previous word and the following word. \added[id=lq]Also, negations and emotion transitions are context sensitive. However, the memory network described in Section 3.2 has only one memory slot with size to represent a clause, where is the dimension of a word embedding and is the length of a clause. It means that when the memory network models a clause, it only considers each word separately.
In order to capture \added[id=lq]context information for clauses, we propose a new architecture which contains more memory slot to model the context with a convolutional operation. The basic architecture of Convolutional Multiple-Slot Memory Network (in short: ConvMS-Memnet) is shown in Figure 4.
Considering the text length is usually short in the dataset used here for emotion cause extraction, we set the size of the convolutional kernel to 3. That is, the weight of word \added[id=lq]in the -th position considers both the previous word and the following word by a convolutional operation:
For the first and the last word in a clause, we use zero padding, , where is the length of a clause. Then, the attention \replaced[id=lq]weightsignal for each word position in the clause is \added[id=lq]now defined as:
Note that we obtain the attention for each position rather than each word. It means that the corresponding attention for the -th word in the previous convolutional slot should be . Hence, there are three prediction output vectors, namely, , , :
At last, we concatenate the three vectors as for the prediction by a softmax function:
Here, the size of is . Since the prediction vector is a concatenation of three outputs. We implement a concatenation operation rather than averaging or other operations because the parameters in different memory slots can be updated \deleted[id=lq]respectively in this way by back propagation. The concatenation of three output vectors forms a sequence-level feature which can be used in the training. Such a feature is important especially \added[id=lq]when the size of annotated training data is small.
For deep architecture with multiple layer\deleted[id=lq]s training, the network is more \added[id=lq]complex (shown in Figure 5).
For the first layer, the query is an embedding of the emotion word, .
In the next layer, there are three input queries since the previous layer has three outputs: , , . So, for the -th layer (), we need to re-define the weight function (5) as:
In the last layer, \added[id=lq]the concatenation of the three prediction vectors form the final prediction vector to generate the answer.
For model training, we use stochastic gradient descent and back propagation to optimize the loss function. Word embeddings are learned using a skip-gram model. The size of the word embedding is 20 since the vocabulary size in our dataset is small. The dropout is set to 0.4.
4 Experiments and Evaluation
We first presents the experimental settings and then report the results in this section.
4.1 Experimental Setup and Dataset
We conduct experiments on a simplified Chinese emotion cause corpus Gui et al. (2016)***Available at: http://hlt.hitsz.edu.cn/?page id=694, the only publicly available dataset on this task to the best of our knowledge. The corpus contains 2,105 documents from SINA city news†††http://news.sina.com.cn/society/. Each document has only one emotion word and one or more emotion causes. The documents \addedare segmented into clauses manually. The main task is to identify which clause contains the emotion cause.
|Documents with 1 emotion||2,046|
|Documents with 2 emotions||56|
|Documents with 3 emotions||3|
[id=lq]Details of the corpus are shown in Table 1. The metrics we used in evaluation follows \newcitelee2010text. It is commonly accepted so that we can compare our results with others. If a proposed emotion cause clause covers the annotated answer, the word sequence is considered correct. The precision, recall, and F-measure are defined by
In the experiments, we randomly select 90% of the dataset as training data and 10% as testing data. In order to obtain statistically credible results, we evaluate our method and baseline methods 25 times with different train/test splits.
4.2 Evaluation and Comparison
We compare with the following baseline methods:
RB (Rule based method): The rule based method proposed in Lee et al. (2010).
CB (Common-sense based method): \addedThis is the knowledge based method proposed by Russo et al. (2011). We use the Chinese Emotion Cognition Lexicon Xu et al. (2013) as the common-sense knowledge base. The lexicon contains more than 5,000 kinds of emotion stimulation and their corresponding reflection words.
RB+CB+ML (Machine learning method trained from rule-based features and facts from a common-sense knowledge base): This methods was previously proposed for emotion cause classification in Chen et al. (2010). It takes rules and facts in a knowledge base as features for classifier training. We train a SVM using features extracted from the rules defined in Lee et al. (2010) and the Chinese Emotion Cognition Lexicon Xu et al. (2013).
Word2vec: \addedThis is a SVM classifier using word representations learned by Word2vec Mikolov et al. (2013) as features.
Multi-kernel: \addedThis is the state-of-the-art method using the multi-kernel method Gui et al. (2016) to identify the emotion cause. We use the best performance reported in their paper.
CNN: The convolutional neural network for sentence classification Kim (2014).
Memnet: The deep memory network described in Section 3.2. Word embeddings are pre-trained by skip-grams. The number of hops is set to 3.
ConvMS-Memnet: The convolutional multiple-slot deep memory network we proposed in Section 3.3. Word embeddings are pre-trained by skip-grams. The number of hops is 3 in our experiments.
Table 2 shows the \addedevaluation results. \addedThe rule based RB gives fairly high precision but with low recall. CB, the common-sense based method, achieves the highest recall. \addedYet, its precision is the worst. \addedRB+CB, the combination of RB and CB gives higher \addedthe F-measure But, the improvement of 1.27% is only marginal compared to RB.
For machine learning methods, RB+CB+ML uses \addedboth rules and \addedcommon-sense knowledge as features to train a machine learning classifier. It achieves F-measure of 0.5597, outperforming RB+CB. Both SVM and word2vec are word feature based methods and they have similar performance. For word2vec, even though \addedword representations are obtained from the SINA news raw corpus, it still performs worse than SVM trained using n-gram features only. The multi-kernel method Gui et al. (2016) is the best performer among the baselines \addedbecause it considers context information in a structured way. It models text by its syntactic tree and also considers an emotion lexicon. \addedTheir work shows that the structure information is important for the emotion cause extraction task.
Naively applying \addedthe original deep memory network or convolutional network for emotion cause extraction outperforms all the baselines except the convolutional multi-kernel method. However, using our proposed ConvMS-Memnet architecture, we manage to boost the performance \addedby 11.54% in precision, 4.84% in recall and 8.24% in F-measure respectively when compared to Memnet. The improvement is \addedvery significant with -value less than 0.01 in -test. The ConvMS-Memnet also outperforms the previous best-performing method, multi-kernel, by 3.01% in F-measure. It shows that by effectively capturing context information, ConvMS-Memnet is able to identify the emotion cause better compared to other methods.
4.3 More Insights into the ConvMS-Memnet
To gain better insights into our proposed ConvMS-Memnet, we conduct further experiments to understand the impact on performance by using: 1) pre-trained or randomly initialized word embedding; 2) multiple hops; 3) attention visualizations; 4) more training epochs.
4.3.1 Pre-trained Word Embeddings
|previous slot||current slot||following slot||Hop 1||Hop 2||Hop 3||Hop 4||Hop 5|
|Clause||5 Epochs||10 Epochs||15 Epochs||20 Epochs|
|it is … baby||0.3546||0.6778||0.5457||0.3254|
|If the … back home||0.7627||0.7946||0.8092||0.9626|
|they … Spring Festival||0.2060||0.0217||0.0004||0.0006|
In our ConvMS-Memnet, we use pre-trained word embedding as the input. The embedding maps each word into a lower dimensional real-value vector as its representation. Words sharing similar meanings should have similar representations. It enables our model to deal with synonyms more effectively.
The question is, “can we train the network without using pre-trained word embeddings?”. We initialize word vectors randomly, and use an embedding matrix to update the word vectors in the training of the network simultaneously. Comparison results are shown in Table 3. It can be observed that pre-trained word embedding gives 2.59% higher F-measure compared to random initialization. This is partly due to the limited size of our training data. Hence using word embedding trained from other much larger corpus gives better results.
4.3.2 Multiple Hops
It is widely acknowledged that computational models using deep architecture with multiple layers have better ability to learn data representations with multiple levels of abstractions. In this section, we evaluate the power of multiple hops in this task. We set the number of hops from 1 to 9 with 1 standing for the simplest single layer network shown in Figure 4. The more hops are stacked, the more complicated the model is. Results are shown in Table 4. The single layer network has achieved a competitive performance. With the increasing number of hops, the performance improves. However, when the number of hops is larger than 3, the performance decreases due to overfitting. Since the dataset for this task is small, more parameters will lead to overfitting. As such, we choose 3 hops in our final model since it gives the best performance in our experiments.
4.3.3 Word-Level Attention Weights
Essentially, memory network aims to measure the weight of each word in the clause with respect to the emotion word. The question is, will the model really focus on the words which describe the emotion cause? We choose one example to show the attention results in Table 5:
Ex.2 å®¶äºº/family ç/’s åæ/insistence æ´/more è®©/makes äºº/people æå¨/touched
In this example, the cause of the emotion “touched” is “insistence”. We show in Table 5 the distribution of word-level attention weights in different hops of memory network training. We can observe that in the first two hops, the highest attention weights centered on the word “more”. However, from the third hop onwards, the highest attention weight moves to the word sub-sequence centred on the word “insistence”. This shows that our model is effective in identifying the most important keyword relating to the emotion cause. Also, better results are obtained using deep memory network trained with at least 3 hops. This is consistent with what we observed in Section 4.3.2.
In order to evaluate the quality of keywords extracted by memory networks, we define a new metric on the keyword level of emotion cause extraction. The keyword is defined as the word which obtains the highest attention weight in the identified clause. If the keywords extracted by our algorithm is located within the boundary of annotation, it is treated as correct. Thus, we can obtain the precision, recall, and F-measure by comparing the proposed keywords with the correct keywords by:
Since the reference methods do not focus on the keywords level, we only compare the performance of Memnet and ConvMS-Memnet in Table 6. It can be observed that our proposed ConvMS-Memnet outperforms Memnet by 5.6% in F-measure. It shows that by capturing context features, ConvMS-Memnet is able to identify the word level emotion cause better compare to Memnet.
4.3.4 Training Epochs
In our model, the training epochs are set to 20. In this section, we examine the testing error using a case study. Due to the page length limit, we only choose one example from the corpus. The text below has four clauses:
Ex.3 45 days, it is long time for the parents who lost their baby. If the baby comes back home, they would become so happy in this Spring Festival.
In this example, the cause of emotion “happy” is described in the third clause.
We show in Table 7 the probability of each clause containing an emotion cause in different training epochs. It is interesting to see that our model is able to detect the correct clause with only 5 epochs. With the increasing number of training epochs, the probability associated with the correct clause increases further while the probabilities of incorrect clauses decrease generally.
We have shown in Section 4.3.4 a simple example consisting of only four clauses from which our model can identify the clause containing the emotion cause correctly. We notice that for some complex text passages which contain long distance dependency relations, negations or emotion transitions, our model may have a difficulty in detecting the correct clause containing the emotion causes. It is a challenging task to properly model the discourse relations among clauses. In the future, we will explore different network architecture with consideration of various discourse relations possibly through transfer learning of larger annotated data available for other tasks.
Another shortcoming of our model is that, the answer generated from our model is simply “yes” or “no”. The main reason is that the size of the annotated corpus is too small to train a model which can output natural language answers in full sentences. Ideally, we would like to develop a model which can directly give the cause of an emotion expressed in text. However, since the manual annotation of data is too expensive for this task, we need to explore feasible ways to automatically collect annotate data for emotion cause detection. We also need to study effective evaluation mechanisms for such QA systems.
In this \added[id=lq]work, we \added[id=lq]treat emotion cause extraction as a QA task and propose a new model based on deep memory networks for identifying \added[id=lq]the emotion causes for an emotion expressed in text. \added[id=lq]The key property of this approach is the use of context information in the learning process which is ignored in the original memory network. Our new \added[id=lq]memory network architecture is able \added[id=lq]to store context in different memory slots to capture context information \added[id=lq]in proper sequence by convolutional operation. Our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on a dataset for emotion cause detection when compared to a number of competitive baselines. In the future, we will explore effective ways \added[id=lq]to model discourse relations among clauses and develop a QA system which can directly output the cause of emotions as answers.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 61370165, U1636103, 61632011, 61528302, National 863 Program of China 2015AA015405, Shenzhen Foundational Research Funding JCYJ20150625142543470, JCYJ20170307150024907 and Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Data Science 2016KF09.
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