A Hybrid Model for Identity Obfuscation by Face Replacement
As more and more personal photos are shared and tagged in social media, avoiding privacy risks such as unintended recognition, becomes increasingly challenging. We propose a new hybrid approach to obfuscate identities in photos by head replacement. Our approach combines state of the art parametric face synthesis with latest advances in Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) for data-driven image synthesis. On the one hand, the parametric part of our method gives us control over the facial parameters and allows for explicit manipulation of the identity. On the other hand, the data-driven aspects allow for adding fine details and overall realism as well as seamless blending into the scene context. In our experiments we show highly realistic output of our system that improves over the previous state of the art in obfuscation rate while preserving a higher similarity to the original image content.
Visual data is shared publicly at unprecedented scales through social media. At the same time, however, advanced image retrieval and face recognition algorithms, enabled by deep neural networks and large-scale training datasets, allow to index and recognize privacy relevant information more reliably than ever. To address this exploding privacy threat, methods for reliable identity obfuscation are crucial. Ideally, such a method should not only effectively hide the identity information but also preserve the realism of the visual data, i.e., make obfuscated people look realistic.
Existing techniques for identity obfuscation have evolved from simply covering the face with often unpleasant occluders, such as black boxes or mosaics, to more advanced methods that produce natural images [1, 2, 3]. These methods either perturb the imagery in an imperceptible way to confuse specific recognition algorithms [2, 3], or substantially modify the appearance of the people in the images, thus making them unrecognizable even for generic recognition algorithms and humans . Among the latter category, recent work  leverages a generative adversarial network (GAN) to inpaint the head region conditioned on facial landmarks. It achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of both recognition rate and image quality. However, due to the lack of controllability of the image generation process, the results of such a purely data-driven method inevitably exhibit artifacts by inpainting faces of unfitting age, gender, facial expression, or implausible shape. In contrast, parametric face models  give us complete control of facial attributes and have demonstrated compelling results for applications such as face reconstruction, expression transfer and dubbing [4, 5, 6]. Importantly, using a parametric face model allows to control the identify of a person as well as to preserve attributes such as gender, age and facial expression by rendering and blending an altered face over the original image. However, this naive face replacement yields unsatisfactory results, since (1) fine level details cannot be synthesized by the model, (2) imperfect blending leads to unnatural output images and (3) only the face region is obfuscated while the larger head and hair regions, which also contain a lot of identity information, remain untouched.
In this paper, we propose a novel approach that combines a data-driven method and a parametric face model, and therefore leverages the best of two worlds. To this end, we disentangle and solve our problem in two stages (see Fig. 1): In the first stage, we replace the face region in the image with a rendered face of a different identity. To this end we replace the identity related component of the original person in the parameter vector of the face model while preserving attributes of original facial expression. In the second stage, a GAN is trained to synthesize the complete head image given the rendered face and an obfuscated region around the head as conditional input. In this stage, the missing region in the input is inpainted and fine grained details are added, resulting in a photo-realistic output image. Our qualitative and quantitative evaluation shows that our approach significantly outperforms the baseline methods on publicly available datasets with both lower recognition rate and higher image quality.
2 Related work
Identity obfuscation. Blurring the face region or covering it with occluders, such as a mosaic or a black bar, are still the predominant techniques for visual identity obfuscation in photos and videos. The performance of these methods in concealing identity against machine recognition systems has been studied in  and . They show that these simple techniques not only introduce unpleasant artifacts, but also become less effective due to the improvement of CNN-based recognition methods. Hiding the identity information while preserving the photorealism of images is still an unsolved problem. Only a few works have attempted to tackle this problem.
For target-specific obfuscations, Sharif et al.  and Oh et al.  used adversarial example based methods which perturb the imagery in an imperceptible manner aiming to confuse specific machine recognition systems. Their obfuscation patterns are invisible to humans and the obfuscation performance is strong. However, obfuscation can only be guaranteed for target-specific machine recognition systems.
To confuse target-generic machine recognizers and even human recognizers, Brkic et al.  generated full body images that overlay with the target person masks. However, synthesized persons with uniform poses do not match scene context which leads to blending artifacts in final images. The recent work of  inpaints fake head images conditioned on the context and blends generated heads with diverse poses into varied background and body poses in social media photos. While achieving state-of-the-art performance in terms of both recognition rate and image quality, the results of such a purely data-driven method inevitably exhibits artifacts like the change of attributes such as gender, skin color and facial expressions.
Parametric face models. Blanz and Vetter  learn an affine parametric 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) of face geometry and texture from 200 high quality scans. Higher-quality models have been constructed using more scans , or by using information from in-the-wild images [12, 13]. Such parametric models can act as strong regularizers for 3D face reconstruction problems, and have been widely used in optimization based [5, 14, 12, 15, 16, 17] and learning-based [18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23] settings. Recently, a model-based face autoencoder (MoFA) has been introduced  which combines a trainable CNN encoder with an expert-designed differentiable rendering layer as decoder, which allows for end-to-end training on real images. We use such an architecture and extend it to reconstruct faces from images where the face region is blacked out or blurred for obfuscation. We also utilize the semantics of the parameters of the 3DMM by replacing the identity-specific parameters to synthesize overlaid faces with different identities. While the reconstructions obtained using parametric face models are impressive, they are limited to the low-dimensional subspace of the model. Many high-frequency details are not captured and in overlaid 3DMM renderings the face region does not blend well with the surroundings. Some reconstruction methods go beyond the low-dimensional parametric models [24, 6, 16, 17, 21, 19] to capture more face detail, but they lack parametric control of captured high-frequency details.
Image inpainting and refinement. We propose a GAN based method in the second stage to refine the rendered 3DMM face pixels for higher realism as well as to inpaint the obfuscated head pixels around the rendered face. In [25, 26], rendered images are modified to be more realistic by means of adversarial training. The generated data works well for specific tasks such as gaze estimation and hand pose estimation, with good results on real images. Raymond et al.  and Pathak et al.  have used GANs to synthesize missing content conditioned on image context. Both of these approaches assume strong appearance similarity or connection between the missing parts and their contexts. Sun et al.  inpainted head pixels conditioned on facial landmarks. Our method, conditioned on parametric face model renderings, gives us control to change the identity of the generated face while also synthesizing more photo-realistic results.
3 Face replacement framework
We propose a novel face replacement approach for identity obfuscation that combines a data-driven method with a parametric face model.
Our approach consists of two stages (see Fig. 1). Experimenting on different modalities of input results in different levels of obfuscation 111Stage-I input image choices: Original image, Blurred face and Blacked-out face. Stage-II input image choices: Original hair, Blurred hair and Blacked-out hair.. In the first stage, we can not only render a reconstructed face on the basis of a parametric face model (3DMM), but can also replace the face region in the image with the rendered face of a different identity. In the second stage, a GAN is trained to synthesize the complete head image given the rendered face and a further obfuscated image around the face as conditional inputs. The obfuscation here protects the identity information contained in the ears, hair, etc. In this stage, the obfuscated region is inpainted with realistic content and fine grain details missing in the rendered 3DMM is added, resulting in a photo-realistic output image.
3.1 Stage-I: Face replacement
Stage-I of our approach reconstructs 3D faces from the input images using a parametric face model. We train a convolutional encoder to regress the model’s semantic parameters from the input. This allows us to render a synthetic face reconstructed from a person and also gives us the control to modify its rendered identity based on the parameter vector.
Semantic parameters. We denote the set of all semantic parameters as = , . These parameters describe the full appearance of the face. We use an affine parametric 3D face model to represent our reconstructions. and represent the shape and reflectance of the face, and correspond to the identity of the person. These parameters are the coefficients of the PCA vectors constructed from 200 high-quality face scans . are the coefficients of the expression basis vectors computed using PCA on selected blend shapes of  and . We use , and parameters. Together, they define the per-vertex position and reflectance of the face mesh represented in the topology used by . In addition, we also estimate the rigid pose () of the face and the scene illumination (). Rigid pose is parametrized with parameters corresponding to a translation vector and Euler angles for the rotation. Scene illumination is parameterized using parameters corresponding to the first bands of the spherical harmonic basis functions .
Our stage-I architecture is based on the Model-based Face Autoencoder (MoFA)  and consists of a convolutional encoder and a parametric face decoder. The encoder regresses the semantic parameters given an input image222We use AlexNet as the encoder..
Parametric face decoder. As shown in Fig. 1, the parametric face decoder takes the output of the convolutional encoder, , as input and generates the reconstructed face model and its rendered image. The reconstructed face can be represented as and , , where and denote the position in camera space and the shaded color of the vertex , and is the total number of vertices. The decoder also computes which denotes the projected pixel location of , using a full perspective camera model.
Loss function. Our auto-encoder in the stage-I is trained using a loss function that compares the input image to the output of the decoder as
Here, is a landmark alignment term which measures the distance between 66 fiducial landmarks  in the input image with the corresponding landmarks on the output of the parametric decoder,
is the th landmark’s image position and is the index of the corresponding landmark vertex on the face mesh. Image landmarks are computed using the dlib toolkit . is a photometric alignment term which measures the per-vertex appearance difference between the reconstruction and the input image,
is the set of visible vertices and is the image for current training iteration.
is a Tikhonov style statistical regularizer which prevents degenerate reconstructions by penalizing parameters far away from their mean,
, , are the standard deviations of the shape, expression and reflectance vectors respectively. Please refer to [4, 13] for more details on face model and the loss function. Since the loss function is differentiable, we can backpropagate the gradients to the convolutional encoder, enabling self-supervised learning of the network.
Replacement of identity parameters. The controllable semantic parameters of the face model have the advantage that we can modify them after face reconstruction. Note that the shape and reflectance parameters and of the face mode depend on the identity of the person [10, 20]. We propose to modify these parameters (referred to as identity parameters from now on) and render synthetic overlaid faces with different identities, while keeping all other dimensions fixed. While all face model dimensions could be modified we want to avoid unfitting facial attributes. For example, changing all dimensions of the reflectance parameters can lead to misaligned skin color between the rendered face and the body. To alleviate this problem, we keep the first, third and fourth dimensions of , which control the global skin tone of the face, fixed.
After obtaining the semantic parameters on all our training set (over 2k different identities), we first cluster the identity parameters into different identity clusters with the respective cluster means as representatives. We then replace the identity parameters of the current test image with the parameters of the cluster that is either closest (Replacer1), at middle distance (Replacer8) or furthest away (Replacer15) to evaluate different levels of obfuscation (Fig. 2). Note that each test image has its own Replacers.
Input image obfuscation. In addition to replacing the identity parameters, we also optionally allow additional obfuscation by blurring or blacking out the face region in the input image for Stage-I (the face region is determined by reconstructing the face from the original image). These obfuscation strategies force the Stage-I network to predict the semantic parameters only using the context information (Fig. 3), thus reducing the extent of facial identity information captured in the reconstructions. We train networks for these strategies using the full body images with the obfuscated face region as input while using the original unmodified images in the loss function 333If the input image is not obfuscated in Stage-I, we directly use the pre-trained coarse model of  to get the parameters and the rendered face.. This approach gives us nice results which preserve the boundary of the face region and the skin color of the person even for such obfuscated input images (Fig. 3). The rigid pose and appearance of the face is also nicely estimated.
In addition to reducing the identity information in the rendered face, the Stage-I network also removes the expression information when faces in the input images are blurred or blacked out. To better align our reconstructions with the input images without adding any identity-specific information, we further refine only the rigid pose and expression estimates of the reconstructions. We minimize part of the energy term in (1) after initializing all parameters with the predictions of our network.
Note that only and are optimized during refinement. We use non-linear iterations of a Gauss-Newton optimizer to minimize this energy. As can be seen in Fig 3, this optimization strategy significantly improves the alignment between the reconstructions and the input images. Note that input image obfuscation can be combined with identity replacement to further change the identity of the rendered face.
The output of stage-I is the shaded rendering of the face reconstruction. The synthetic face lacks high-frequency details and does not blend perfectly with the image as the expressiveness of the parametric model is limited. Stage-II enhances this result and provides further obfuscation by removing/reducing the context information from the full head region.
3.2 Stage-II: Inpainting
Stage-II is conditioned on the rendered face image from Stage-I and an obfuscated region around the head to inpaint a realistic image. There are two objectives for this inpainter: (1) inpainting the blurred/blacked-out hair pixels in the head region; (2) modifying the rendered face pixels to add fine details and realism to match the surrounding image context. The architecture is composed of a convolutional generator and discriminator , and is optimized by L1 loss and adversarial loss.
Input. For the generator , RGB channels of both the obfuscated image and the rendered face from Stage-I are concatenated as input. For the discriminator , we take the inpainted image as fake and the original image as real. Then, we feed the (fake, real) pairs into the discriminator. We use the whole body image instead of just the head region in order to generate natural transitions between the head and the surrounding regions including body and background, especially for the case of obfuscated input.
Head Generator () and Discriminator (). The head generator is a “U-Net”-based architecture , i.e. Convolutional Auto-encoder with skip connections between encoder and decoder444Network architectures and hyper-parameters are given in supplementary materials., following . It generates a natural head image given both the surrounding context and the rendered face. The architecture of the discriminator is the same as in DCGAN .
Loss function. We use L1 reconstruction loss plus adversarial loss, named , to optimize the generator and the adversarial loss, named , to optimize the discriminator. For the generator, we add the head-masked L1 loss such that the optimizer focuses more on the appearance of the targeted head region,
where is the head mask (from the annotated bounding box), denotes the original image and is the binary cross-entropy loss. The is the L1 weight that controls how close the generated image looks like the ground truth555When is small, the adversarial loss dominates the training and it is more likely to generate artifacts; when is big, the generator with a basic L1 loss dominates training and thus generates blurry results.. Then, for the discriminator, we have the following losses:
Fig. 4 shows the effect of our inpainter. In (a) when the original hair image is given, the inpainter refines the rendered face pixels to match surroundings, e.g., the face skin becomes more realistic in the bottom image. In (b)(c), the inpainter not only refines the face pixels but also generates the blurring/missing head pixels based on the context.
Identity obfuscation in this paper is target-generic: it is designed to work against any recognizer, be it machine or human. In this paper, we use both recognizers to test our approach.
4.1 Machine recognizers
We use the same automatic recognition framework naeil  for social media images as in . In contrast to typical person recognizers, naeil also uses body and scene context cues for recognition. It has thus proven to be relatively immune to common obfuscation techniques like blacking-out or blurring the head region .
We first train feature extractors over head and body regions, and then train SVM identity classifiers on those features. We can concatenate features from multiple regions (e.g. head+body) to make use of multiple cues. In our work, we use GoogleNet features from head and head+body for evaluation. We have also verified that the obfuscation results show similar trends against AlexNet-based analogues (see supplementary materials).
4.2 Human recognizers
We also conduct human recognition experiments to evaluate the obfuscation effectiveness in a perceptual way. Given an original head image and the head images inpainted by variants of our method and results of other methods, we ask users to recognize the original person from the inpainted ones, and to also choose the farthest one in terms of identity. Users are guided to focus on identity recognition rather than the image quality. For each method, we calculate the percentage of times its results were chosen as the farthest identity (higher number implies better obfuscation performance).
Ideally, a visual identity obfuscation method should not only effectively hide the identity information but also produce photo-realistic results. Therefore, we evaluate our results on the basis of recognition rate and visual realism. We also study the impact of different levels of obfuscation yielded from different input modalities of our two stages. All our evaluations are performed on a social media dataset.
Our obfuscation method needs to be evaluated on realistic social media photos. The PIPA dataset  is the largest social media dataset (37,107 Flickr images with 2,356 annotated individuals), which shows people in diverse events, activities and poses. In total, 63,188 person instances are annotated with head bounding boxes from which we create head masks. We split the PIPA dataset into a training set and a test set without overlapping identities, following . In the training set, there are 2,099 identities, 46,576 instances and in the test set 257 identities, 5,175 instances. We further prune images with strong profile or back of the head views from both sets following , resulting in 23,884 training and 1,084 test images. As our pipeline takes a fixed-size input (), we normalize the image size of the dataset. To this end, we crop and zero-pad the images so that the face appears in the top middle block of a grid in the entire image. Details of our crop method are given in supplementary materials.
5.2 Input modalities
Our method allows 18 different combinations of input modalities, which is a combination of 3 types of face modalities, 3 types of hair modalities and the choice of modifying the face identity parameters (default replacer is the Replacer15). Note that, only 17 of them are valid for obfuscation, since the combination of original face and hair aims to reconstruct the original image. Due to space limitations, we compare a representative subset, as shown in Table. 2. The complete results can be found in the supplementary material.
In this section, we evaluate the proposed hybrid approach with different input modalities in terms of the realism of images and the obfuscation performance.
Image realism. We evaluate the quality of the inpainted images compared to the ground truth (original) images using Structure Similarity Score (SSIM) . During training, the body parts are not obfuscated, so we report the mask-SSIM [1, 35] for head region only (SSIM scores are in supplementary materials). This score measures how close the inpainted head is to the original head.
The SSIM metric is not applicable when using a Replacer, as ground truth images are not available. Therefore, we conduct a human perceptual study (HPS) on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) following [1, 35]. For each method, we show 55 real and 55 inpainted images in a random order to 20 users, who are asked to answer whether the image looks real or fake within 1s (the first 10 images are only used for practice).
Obfuscation performance. Obfuscation evaluation is to measure how well our methods can fool automatic person recognizers as well as humans. We have defined machine recognizers and human recognizers in Section 4.
For machine recognizers, we report in Table 2 the average recognition rates for 1,084 test images. For human recognition, we randomly choose 45 instances from the test set and ask recognizers to verify the identity, given the original image as reference, from the obfuscated images of six representative methods: two methods in  and four methods of ours using blacked-out face and blacked-out hair images. We report the success rate of obfuscating human recognizers in the last column of Table 2.
|, our crop||Blackhead+Detect||0.43||0.34||12.7%||24.0%||4.1%|
|, our crop||Blackhead+PDMDec.||0.23||0.15||9.7%||19.7%||20.1%|
Comparison to the state-of-the-art. In Table 2, we report quantitative evaluation results on different input modalities and in comparison to . Since the cropping methods are different, we also implement the exact same models of  on our cropped data for fair comparisons. We also compare the visual quality of our results with , see Fig. 5. Following evaluations on  focus on our cropped data by default.
Our best obfuscation rate is achieved by v11. The most comparable method in  is Blackhead+PDMDec, where the input is an image with a fully blacked-out head and the landmarks are generated by PDMDec. Comparing v11 with it, we achieve the lower recognition rate ( higher for confusing machine recognizers) using head features. Our method does even better ( higher) in fooling human recognizers. In addition, our method has clearly higher image quality in terms of HPS, vs. .
Figure 5 shows that our method generates more natural images in terms of consistent skin colors, proper head poses and vivid face expressions.
Analysis of different face/hair modalities. Table 2 show that different modalities of the input yield different levels of obfuscation and image quality. In general, the image quality is roughly correlated to the recognition rate. With higher level of modification to an image, the identity will be more effectively obfuscated, but the image quality will also deteriorate accordingly. However, we can observe that the recognition rate drops quicker than the image quality.
It is worth noting that when there is no inpainting on the rendered faces (v1), HPS score is , lower than v2, verifying that rendered faces are less realistic than inpainted ones. Not surprisingly, the best image quality is achieved by v2 which aims to reconstruct the original image without obfuscation. On top of that, when we use blurred faces in Stage-I (v4), the machine recognition rate (head) drops from to . This indicates that blurring the face region indeed partially conceals the identity information.
When blurring the hair region (v6), the recognition rate sharply drops to , which implies that the region around the face contains a large amount of identity information. When completely removing all the information from the face and hair regions (v8), we get even lower recognition rate of .
Face replacement is of great effectiveness. We can see from Table 2 that replacing the face parameters with those of another identity is an effective way of hiding the identity information. Regardless of the face and hair input modalities, the obfuscation performances on both recognizers are significantly improved using Replacer15 rendered faces than using Own rendered faces. Replacing faces from close to far identities also has an obvious impact on the obfuscation effectiveness. From v9 to v11 in Table 2, we can see using Replacer8 yields clearly better obfuscation than the Replacer1, e.g., obfuscation for humans gets improvement. This is further evidenced by the comparison between the Replacer15 and Replacer1. Visually, Fig. 6 and Fig. 5 show that replacing the face parameters indeed makes the faces very different.
Trade-off between image quality and obfuscation. Fig. 7 shows the machine recognition rate vs. image quality plots for different obfuscation methods (some are not in Table 2 but in supplementary materials). Points on the curves from left to right are the results of using Blacked-out, Blurred and Original hair inputs for stage-II.
This figure allows users to select the method with the highest image quality given a specified obfuscation threshold. For example, if a user would like to take the risk of recognizability at most, the highest image quality he/she can get is about , corresponding to the middle point on the blue dashed line (the method of Original image, Blurred hair, Replacer15). On the other hand, if a user requires the image quality to be at least , the best obfuscation possible corresponds to the first point of the red dashed line (the method of Blacked-out face, Blacked-out hair, Replacer15). The global coverage of these plots show the selection constrains, such as when a user strictly controls the privacy leaking rate under , there are only two applicable methods: Blackhead+PDMDec  (image quality is only ) and ours (Blacked-out face, Blacked-out hair, Replacer15) where the image quality is higher at .
We have introduced a new hybrid approach to obfuscate identities in photos by head replacement. Thanks to the combination of a parametric face model reconstruction and rendering, and the GAN-based data-driven image synthesis, our method gives us complete control over the facial parameters for explicit manipulation of the identity, and allows for photo-realistic image synthesis. The images synthesized by our method confuse not only the machine recognition systems but also humans. Our experimental results have demonstrated output of our system that improves over the previous state of the art in obfuscation rate while generating obfuscated images of much higher visual realism.
This research was supported in part by German Research Foundation (DFG CRC 1223) and the ERC Starting Grant CapReal (335545). We thank Dr. Florian Bernard for the helpful discussion.
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Appendix A Network architectures
In Fig. 8, we present the U-Net architecture for the Head Generator , which corresponds to the Inpainter in Fig.1 of the main paper. Note that the output of the deep network is the image (256x256x3) including the body and the head. In the final layer, the output is cropped based on the head mask and pasted onto the obfuscated image (one of the inputs). Therefore, only the head region can provide any feedback during back-propagation. This follows from .
Appendix B Implementation details
For the Stage-I network (Section 3.1 in the main paper), AlexNet is used as the encoder (“Conv Encoder” in the Fig.1 of the main paper). We use AdaDelta  (k iterations) to optimize the weights of the network with a batch size of 5 and a learning rate of .
In the Inpainter (Section 3.2 in the main paper), the Head Generator is trained using the Adam optimizer  with (in the main paper Eq. (7)). Initial learning rates (for both generator and discriminator ) are , which decays to half every iterations. The batch size is set to ; optimization stops after iterations; each iteration consists of and parameter updates for the generator and the discriminator respectively. It takes around epochs for training the generator and around epochs for training the discriminator.
To prepare a body crop (Section 5.1 in the main paper), keeping the ratio of the head (width/height) unchanged, we first resize the original image such that the head height is of . Then we crop a head weight head height region from the input image, making sure that the head lies in the upper middle region of the crop. We zero-pad the image if its dimensions are smaller than the crop, and also to obtain the final crop with the desired size.
|Stage-II||Image quality||Google Net||Alex Net|
|, our crop||Blu.+Detect||0.64||0.98||40.5%||47.8%||43.6%||43.2%|
|, our crop||Blu.+PDMDec.||0.47||0.97||30.6%||38.6%||35.4%||37.0%|
|, our crop||Bla.+Detect||0.43||0.97||12.7%||24.0%||15.1%||23.4%|
|, our crop||Bla.+PDMDec.||0.23||0.96||9.7%||19.7%||10.5%||19.2%|
Appendix C Obfuscation performance against AlexNet
In the experiments provided in the main paper, we focused on the obfuscation performance using a GoogleNet-based recognizer. However, as we have mentioned, our approach is target-generic: it is expected to work against a generic system.
Therefore, in this section, we additionally present the obfuscation performance with respect to an AlexNet-based recognizer. Following the same “feature extraction - SVM prediction” framework as in the main paper, we replace the feature extractor with AlexNet. Table 2 shows the quantitative comparisons between GoogleNet and AlexNet recognizers on different versions of our approach. Note that in this table, v111 are the same representative versions as shown in Table 1 of the main paper. All other versions are also added here.
Some recognition rate differences exit between the two recognizers. First of all, on original (ground truth) images, AlexNet performs worse than GoogleNet (). On images generated by our method (v121), AlexNet performs similarly when using head features, achieving a higher recognition rate for 12 input modalities out of 21, compared to GoogleNet. However, while using head+body features, GoogleNet recognition rates are higher for 18 different input modalities. The possible reason could be that the 1024-dimensional GoogleNet features are more compact than the AlexNet features, which are 4096-dimensional. From the discriminative head images, less compact features can extract more information in the additional feature dimensions. On the other hand, concatenation of features from the noisy body images could reduce the final recognition rates.
Appendix D Visualization results
In this section, we show visualization results using different modalities (v2 to v21), corresponding to Table 2.
Respectively in Figure 9, Figure 10 and Figure 11, we show results with rendered faces from Original images, Blurred face images and Blacked-out face images. Note that, the results are consistently cropped to have small zero-padded regions. In most cases, the best visual quality is achieved in the second column which uses Original hair images. The largest visual differences compared to the original faces are visible in the last column when the rendered faces are replaced and the hair regions are entirely obfuscated by blacking-out.